After delivery, the mother can expect to have some symptoms, but they are usually mild and temporary. Complications are rare. Nonetheless, the doctor, hospital staff members, or health care plan usually sets up a program of follow-up office or home visits.
The most common complications are the following:
Postpartum hemorrhage may occur soon after delivery but may occur up to 6 weeks later.
Immediately after delivery of a baby, the mother is monitored for at least 1 hour. If an anesthetic was used during delivery or if there were any problems during delivery, she may be monitored for several hours after delivery, usually in a well-equipped recovery room with access to oxygen, intravenous fluids, and resuscitation equipment.
Staff members check the mother’s pulse rate and temperature. Normally, within the first 24 hours, the mother’s pulse rate (which increased during pregnancy) begins to decline toward normal and her temperature may increase slightly, usually returning to normal during the first few days. After the first 24 hours, recovery is rapid.
Hospital staff members make every effort to minimize the new mother’s pain and the risk of bleeding and infection.
Minimizing bleeding is the first priority. After delivery of the placenta (afterbirth), a nurse may periodically massage the mother’s abdomen to help the uterus contract and remain contracted, thus preventing excessive bleeding Excessive Uterine Bleeding at Delivery Excessive bleeding from the uterus refers to loss of more than 2 pints of blood or symptoms of significant blood loss that occur within 24 hours of delivery. After the baby is delivered, excessive... read more .
If needed, oxytocin is given to stimulate contraction of the uterus. The drug is injected into a muscle or given intravenously as a continuous infusion until the uterus is contracted.
If women lose a lot of blood during and after delivery, a complete blood count is done to check for anemia before they are discharged.
Urine production often increases greatly, but temporarily, after delivery. Because bladder sensation may be decreased after delivery, hospital staff members encourage a new mother to try to urinate regularly, at least every 4 hours. Doing so avoids overfilling the bladder and helps prevent bladder infections. Staff members may gently press on the mother’s abdomen to check the bladder and determine whether it is being emptied.
Occasionally, if the new mother cannot urinate on her own, a catheter must be inserted temporarily into the bladder to empty the urine. Hospital staff members try to avoid using an indwelling catheter (a catheter that is left in the bladder for a period of time). This type of catheter increases the risk of bladder and kidney infections Postpartum Bladder and Kidney Infections A bladder infection (cystitis) sometimes develops after delivery of a baby. A kidney infection (pyelonephritis) can occur if bacteria spread from the bladder to the kidney after delivery. Bladder... read more .
The new mother is also encouraged to defecate before leaving the hospital. But because hospital stays are so short, this expectation may not be practical. Doctors may recommend that if she has not defecated within 3 days, she take laxatives to avoid constipation, which can cause or worsen hemorrhoids. If the rectum or muscles around the anus were torn during delivery, doctors may prescribe stool softeners.
Opioids, which are occasionally given after cesarean delivery to relieve severe pain, can worsen constipation. So if an opioid is needed, the lowest effective dose of such drugs is used.
A new mother can have a regular diet as soon as she wants it, sometimes shortly after delivery. She should get up and walk as soon as possible.
A new mother can start exercises to strengthen abdominal muscles, often after 1 day if delivery was vaginal and later if it was cesarean. Curl-ups with bent knees, done in bed, are effective. However, most women are too tired to start exercising so soon after delivery.
Cesarean delivery is major surgery, and women should not begin exercising until they have had time to fully recover and allow healing, which typically takes about 6 weeks.
Women can resume their prepregnancy exercise routine after approval from their doctor at their postdelivery visit.
Before the mother leaves the hospital, she is given the German measles (rubella) vaccine Prevention Rubella is a contagious viral infection that typically causes mild symptoms, such as joint pain and a rash, but can cause severe birth defects if the mother becomes infected with rubella during... read more if she has never had rubella or never been given this vaccine.
Ideally, the tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) vaccine Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine The diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine is a combination vaccine that protects against these three diseases: Diphtheria usually causes inflammation of the throat and mucous membranes... read more is given during each pregnancy, preferably between weeks 27 and 36. If a mother has never been given the Tdap vaccine during this or a previous pregnancy nor as an adolescent or adult, it should be given to her before she is discharged whether she is breastfeeding or not. If family members who will have contact with the newborn have never been given the Tdap vaccine, they should be given Tdap at least 2 weeks before they have contact with the newborn. The Tdap vaccine immunizes them against pertussis Pertussis Pertussis is a highly contagious infection caused by the gram-negative bacteria Bordetella pertussis, which results in fits of coughing that usually end in a prolonged, high-pitched, deeply... read more (whooping cough) and thus reduces the risk of spreading pertussis to unprotected newborns.
Pregnant women who have never had chickenpox Chickenpox Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection with the varicella-zoster virus that causes a characteristic itchy rash, consisting of small, raised, blistered, or crusted spots. Chickenpox... read more or been given the chickenpox (varicella) vaccine Varicella Vaccine The varicella vaccine helps protect against chickenpox (varicella), a very contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It causes an itchy rash that looks like small blisters with... read more should be given the first dose of the chickenpox vaccine after delivery and the second dose 4 to 8 weeks later.
Doctors may recommend other vaccines, depending on the woman's vaccination history and circumstances.
If a new mother has Rh-negative blood and the baby has Rh-positive blood (called Rh incompatibility Rh Incompatibility Rh incompatibility occurs when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the fetus has Rh-positive blood. Rh incompatibility can result in destruction of the fetus’s red blood cells, sometimes... read more ), she is given Rho(D) immune globulin by injection into a muscle within 3 days of delivery. This drug masks any of the baby’s red blood cells that may have passed to the mother so that they do not trigger the production of antibodies by the mother. Such antibodies may endanger subsequent pregnancies.
Before a new mother leaves the hospital, she is examined. If mother and baby are healthy, they commonly leave the hospital within 24 to 48 hours after vaginal delivery and within 96 hours after a cesarean delivery. Sometimes discharge is as early as 6 hours if no general anesthetic was used and no problems occurred.
The mother is given information about changes to expect in her body and measures to take as her body recovers from having a baby. Regular follow-up visits are scheduled, usually starting at 6 weeks after delivery. If delivery was cesarean or if problems occurred, the first visit may be scheduled sooner.
Coping with some changes begins in the hospital, depending on how soon hospital discharge occurs, and continues at home.
New mothers have a discharge from the vagina. Staff members give them pads to absorb it. Staff members also check the amount and color of the discharge. Usually, it appears bloody for 3 or 4 days. Then it becomes pale brown, and after about 2 weeks, it becomes yellowish white. The discharge may continue for up to about 6 weeks after delivery.
About a week or two after delivery, the scab over the site where the placenta was attached in the uterus comes off, causing vaginal bleeding of up to about a cup. Sanitary pads, changed frequently, may be used to absorb this discharge. Comfortably fitting tampons, changed frequently, can also be used unless they interfere with healing of an episiotomy Delivery of the baby Delivery is the passage of the fetus and placenta (afterbirth) from the uterus to the outside world. (See also Overview of Labor and Delivery.) For delivery in a hospital, a woman may be moved... read more incision or tears in the area between the vaginal opening and the anus (perineum).
Mothers who are not breastfeeding may safely take drugs to help them sleep or to relieve pain.
For women who are breastfeeding, acetaminophen and ibuprofen are relatively safe pain relievers. Many other drugs appear in breast milk. Women who need to take drugs while breastfeeding Drug Use During Breastfeeding When mothers who are breastfeeding have to take a drug, they wonder whether they should stop breastfeeding. The answer depends on the following: How much of the drug passes into the milk Whether... read more should talk to their doctor about it.
The area around the vaginal opening is usually sore, and the area may sting during urination. Tears in the perineum or episiotomy repairs can contribute to the soreness and cause swelling.
Immediately after delivery and for the first 24 hours, ice or cold packs may be used to relieve the pain and swelling. Anesthetic creams or sprays can be applied to the skin.
Later, washing the area around the vagina with warm water 2 or 3 times a day may help reduce tenderness. Warm sitz baths can help relieve pain. Sitz baths are taken in a sitting position with water covering only the perineum and buttocks.
Women should be careful when sitting down and, if sitting is painful, use a doughnut-shaped pillow.
The breasts may be enlarged, tight, and sore because they are engorged with milk. Engorgement occurs during the early stages of milk production (lactation).
For mothers who are not going to breastfeed, the following can help:
Wearing a snug-fitting bra to elevate the breasts and thus help suppress milk production
Applying ice packs and taking analgesics (such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen) to help relieve discomfort until milk production stops on its own
Refraining from manually expressing milk, which can increase milk production
For mothers who are breastfeeding, the following can help until milk production adjusts to the baby’s needs:
If the breasts are very swollen, the mother may have to express her milk just before breastfeeding to enable the baby’s mouth to fit around the areola (the pigmented area of skin around the nipple).
Sadness (baby blues) is common during the days after delivery. Women may also feel irritable, moody, or anxious and may have difficulty concentrating or sleep problems (too much or too little). These symptoms usually disappear after 7 to 10 days. However, if these symptoms continue for longer than 2 weeks or interfere with taking care of the baby or doing daily activities, new mothers should talk to their doctor. In such cases, postpartum depression Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a feeling of extreme sadness and related psychologic disturbances during the first few weeks or months after delivery. Women who have had depression are more likely... read more or another mental health disorder may be present.
A new mother may resume normal daily activities when she feels ready. Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly can help a new mother return to her prepregnancy weight.
She may resume sexual intercourse as soon as she desires it and it is comfortable. Sexual intercourse should be delayed until the affected area heals if
A new mother may take showers or baths shortly after delivery, unless delivery was cesarean. The genital area should be washed from front to back. If the area is sore, using a spray bottle of water or taking sitz baths may be more soothing. Women should not douche until they ask their doctor about it at their first postdelivery visit.
After a cesarean delivery, nothing, including tampons and douches, should be put in the vagina for at least 2 weeks. Strenuous activity and heavy lifting should be avoided for about 6 weeks. Intercourse should also be avoided for 6 weeks. The incision site should be cared for in the same way as other surgical incisions. Showering can typically be resumed 24 hours after surgery. Care should be taken not to scrub the incision site. Baths should be avoided until the wound is completely closed and any staples or sutures have been removed. The incision site should be kept clean and dry. Any evidence of increasing redness or drainage from the incision should be brought to the doctor’s attention. Pain around the incision site can last for a few months, and numbness can last even longer.
The uterus, still enlarged, continues to contract for some time, becoming progressively smaller during the next 2 weeks. These contractions are irregular and often painful. Contractions are intensified by breastfeeding. Breastfeeding triggers the production of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin stimulates the flow of milk (called the let-down reflex) and uterine contractions.
Normally, after 5 to 7 days, the uterus is firm and no longer tender but is still somewhat enlarged, extending to halfway between the pubic bone and the navel. By 2 weeks after delivery, the uterus returns to close to its normal size, and after 4 weeks, it usually returns to its normal size. However, the new mother’s abdomen does not become as flat as it was before the pregnancy for several months, even if she exercises.
Stretch marks do not go away, but they may fade, but sometimes not for a year.
Doctors recommend that women breastfeed Breastfeeding Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns. Although babies may be fed breast milk or formula, the World Health Organization (WHO) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend exclusive... read more without supplementing with other foods for at least 6 months. Then women should continue to breastfeed for another 6 months while introducing other foods. After that, women are encouraged to continue breastfeeding until they or the baby is no longer interested.
If mothers cannot breastfeed or do not want to for various reasons, bottle-feeding Formula Feeding In the hospital, newborns are usually fed shortly after delivery, then ideally on demand thereafter. During the first week after birth, babies take ½ ounce to 2 ounces at a time, gradually increasing... read more can be done instead.
Mothers who are breastfeeding need to learn how to position the baby during feeding. If the baby is not positioned well, the mother’s nipples may become sore and cracked. Sometimes the baby draws in its lower lip and sucks it, irritating the nipple. In such cases, the mother can ease the baby’s lip out of its mouth with her thumb. To remove her nipple from the baby's mouth, the mother should first slide her finger into the baby's mouth to break the suction caused by sucking. This maneuver can prevent the breast from being damaged and becoming sore.
After a feeding, the mother may let the milk dry naturally on the nipples or gently pat them dry. If she wishes, she can dry her nipples with a hair dryer set on low. After breastfeeding, women can apply 100% lanolin to the nipples. Doing so can relieve soreness and help protect the nipples.
When a mother breastfeeds, the breasts may leak milk. Cotton pads can be worn to absorb the milk, but plastic bra liners can irritate the nipples and should be not be used.
While breastfeeding, mothers need to increase their caloric intake by about 300 to 500 calories per day. They should also increase their intake of most vitamins and minerals, such as calcium. Usually, eating a well-balanced diet (including enough dairy products and green, leafy vegetables) and continuing to take a prenatal vitamin with folate once a day are all mothers need to do. Prenatal vitamins should contain at least 400 micrograms of folate. They should drink enough fluids to ensure an adequate milk supply. Mothers on special diets should consult their doctor about the need for other vitamin and mineral supplements, such as vitamin B12 for vegetarians.
Seafood contains nutrients that are important for growth and development of the infant. However, breastfeeding women should choose seafood that is low in mercury. See Mercury in seafood Mercury in seafood Some risk factors are present before women become pregnant. These risk factors include Certain physical characteristics, such as age, and social characteristics of women Problems in a previous... read more for more information.
Use of contraceptives is recommended when intercourse resumes because pregnancy is possible as soon as the mother begins to release an egg from the ovary (ovulate) again.
Mothers who are not breastfeeding usually begin to ovulate again about 4 to 6 weeks after delivery, before their first period. However, ovulation can occur earlier.
Mothers who are solely breastfeeding tend to start ovulating and menstruating somewhat later, closer to 6 months after delivery. However, sometimes a mother who is breastfeeding ovulates, menstruates, and becomes pregnant as quickly as a mother who is not breastfeeding. Mothers who are breastfeeding should talk to their doctors about when to start using contraception.
Full recovery after pregnancy takes about 1 to 2 years. So doctors usually advise a new mother to wait at least 6 months and optimally 18 months before becoming pregnant again (although she may choose not to follow that advice). At her first doctor’s appointment after delivery, a new mother can discuss contraceptive options Overview of Contraception Contraception is prevention of fertilization of an egg by a sperm (conception) or prevention of attachment of the fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus (implantation). Contraception is... read more with her doctor and choose one that suits her situation.
Whether a mother is breastfeeding affects the choice of contraception used. Oral contraceptives that contain estrogen and progesterone can interfere with milk production and should not be used until milk production is well-established. Progesterone-only contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone acetate injections Contraceptive Injections Contraceptive hormones can be Taken by mouth (oral contraceptives) Inserted into the vagina (vaginal rings or barrier contraceptives) Applied to the skin (patch) Implanted under the skin read more , or progestin implants Contraceptive Implants Contraceptive hormones can be Taken by mouth (oral contraceptives) Inserted into the vagina (vaginal rings or barrier contraceptives) Applied to the skin (patch) Implanted under the skin read more can be used, but methods that do not use drugs (such as barrier contraceptives Barrier Contraceptives Barrier contraceptives physically block the sperm’s access to a woman’s uterus. They include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, contraceptive sponges, and spermicides. Condoms are thin protective... read more ) are even better. A diaphragm can be fitted only after the uterus has returned to normal, usually after about 6 to 8 weeks. Before that, foams, jellies, and condoms can be used.
Intrauterine devices Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are small, flexible, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus. An IUD is left in place for 3, 5, or 10 years, depending on the type, or until the... read more (IUDs) can be inserted about 4 to 6 weeks after delivery. Insertion is delayed to reduce the risk that IUDs will be expelled from the uterus.
A new mother (or any woman) who has just been vaccinated against German measles (rubella Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination vaccine that helps protect against these three serious viral infections. The vaccine contains live but weakened measles, mumps... read more ) and/or chickenpox (varicella Varicella Vaccine The varicella vaccine helps protect against chickenpox (varicella), a very contagious infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It causes an itchy rash that looks like small blisters with... read more ) must wait at least 1 month before becoming pregnant again to avoid endangering the fetus.