Passive immunization involves giving
Antibodies to an organism or a toxin produced by an organism
Passive immunization is provided in the following circumstances:
When people cannot synthesize antibody
When people have been exposed to a disease that they are not immune to or that is likely to cause complications
When people have a disease and the effects of the toxin must be ameliorated
Passive immunization does not induce natural immunity.
For immune globulins and antitoxins available in the US, see Table: Immune Globulins and Antitoxins* Available in the US Immune Globulins and Antitoxins* Available in the US .
Human immune globulin (IG)
IG is a concentrated antibody-containing solution prepared from plasma obtained from normal donors. It consists primarily of IgG, although trace amounts of IgA, IgM, and other serum proteins may be present. IG very rarely contains transmissible viruses (eg, hepatitis B or C, HIV) and is stable for many months if stored at 4° C. IG is given intramuscularly (IM).
Because maximal serum antibody levels may not occur until about 48 hours after IM injection, IG must be given as soon after exposure as possible. Half-life of IG in the circulation is about 3 weeks.
IG may be used for prophylaxis in people exposed to or at risk of
Varicella Prevention Chickenpox is an acute, systemic, usually childhood infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (human herpesvirus type 3). It usually begins with mild constitutional symptoms that are followed... read more (in immunocompromised patients when varicella-zoster IG is unavailable)
IG provides only temporary protection; the antibody content against specific agents varies by as much as 10-fold among preparations. Administration is painful, and anaphylaxis can occur.
IV immune globulin (IVIG) was developed to provide larger and repeated doses of human immune globulin. IVIG is used to treat or prevent severe bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and immunodeficiency disorders, particularly the following:
Adverse effects of IVIG are uncommon, although fever, chills, headache, faintness, nausea, vomiting, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reactions, coughing, and volume overload have occurred.
Subcutaneous immune globulin (SCIG) is also prepared from pooled human plasma; SCIG is intended for home use in patients with a primary immunodeficiency.
Injection site reactions are common, but systemic adverse effects (eg, fever, chills) are much less common with SCIG than with IVIG.
Hyperimmune globulin is prepared from the plasma of people with high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen. It is derived from people convalescing from natural infections or donors artificially immunized.
Hyperimmune globulins are available for
Administration is painful, and anaphylaxis may occur. Hyperimmune globulin from patients recovered from COVID-19 is being used on an experimental basis.
Specific monoclonal antibodies active against infectious agents are of great theoretical interest, and a number are currently being studied. However, only one product, palivizumab, is currently available; it is active against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and is used for prevention of RSV infection Prevention Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections cause seasonal lower respiratory tract disease, particularly in infants and young children. Disease may be asymptomatic, mild... read more in certain high-risk children.