The most common causes of vaginitis vary by patient age. Vulvitis and vulvovaginitis have some of the same causes.
In children, vaginitis usually involves infection with gastrointestinal tract flora (nonspecific vulvovaginitis). A common contributing factor in girls aged 2 to 6 years is poor perineal hygiene (eg, wiping from back to front after bowel movements; not washing hands after bowel movements; fingering, particularly in response to pruritus).
Chemicals in bubble baths or soaps may cause inflammation.
Foreign bodies (eg, tissue paper) may cause nonspecific vaginitis with a bloody discharge.
Sometimes childhood vulvovaginitis is due to infection with a specific pathogen (eg, streptococci, staphylococci, Candida species; occasionally, pinworm).
In women of reproductive age, vaginitis is usually infectious. The most common types are
Normally in women of reproductive age, Lactobacillus sp is the predominant constituent of normal vaginal flora. Colonization by these bacteria keeps vaginal pH in the normal range (3.8 to 4.2), thereby preventing overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. Also, high estrogen levels maintain vaginal thickness, bolstering local defenses.
Factors that predispose to overgrowth of bacterial vaginal pathogens may include the following:
Vaginitis may result from foreign bodies (eg, forgotten tampons). Inflammatory vaginitis, which is noninfectious, is uncommon.
In postmenopausal women, a marked decrease in estrogen usually causes vaginal thinning, increasing vulnerability to infection and inflammation. Some treatments (eg, oophorectomy, pelvic radiation, certain chemotherapy drugs) also result in loss of estrogen. Decreased estrogen predisposes to inflammatory (particularly atrophic) vaginitis.
Hormonal changes during menopause can result in a more alkaline vaginal pH, which can predispose to overgrowth of vaginal pathogenic bacteria.
Poor hygiene (eg, in patients who are incontinent or bedbound) can lead to chronic vulvar inflammation due to chemical irritation from urine or feces or due to nonspecific infection.
Bacterial vaginosis, candidal vaginitis, and trichomonal vaginitis are uncommon among postmenopausal women but may occur in those with risk factors.
At any age, conditions that predispose to vaginal or vulvar infection include
Noninfectious vulvitis accounts for up to 30% of vulvovaginitis cases. It may result from hypersensitivity or irritant reactions to hygiene sprays or perfumes, menstrual pads, laundry soaps, bleaches, fabric softeners, fabric dyes, synthetic fibers, bathwater additives, toilet tissue, or, occasionally, spermicides, vaginal lubricants or creams, latex condoms, vaginal contraceptive rings, or diaphragms.
Vaginitis causes vaginal discharge, which must be distinguished from normal discharge. In children, normal discharge is common when estrogen levels are high—eg, during the first 2 weeks of life because maternal estrogen is transferred before birth (slight bleeding often occurs when estrogen levels abruptly decrease) and during the few months before menarche, when estrogen production increases.
Normal vaginal discharge is commonly milky white or mucoid, odorless, and nonirritating; it can result in vaginal wetness that dampens underwear.
Discharge due to vaginitis is accompanied by pruritus, erythema, and sometimes burning, pain, or mild bleeding. Pruritus may interfere with sleep. Dysuria or dyspareunia may occur. In atrophic vaginitis, discharge is scant, dyspareunia is common, and vaginal tissue appears thin and dry. Although symptoms vary among particular types of vaginitis, there is much overlap (see table Common Types of Vaginitis).
Common Types of Vaginitis
Vulvitis can cause erythema, pruritus, and sometimes tenderness and discharge from the vulva.
Vaginitis is diagnosed using clinical criteria and in-office or laboratory testing.
First, vaginal secretions are obtained with a water-lubricated speculum, and pH paper is used to measure pH in 0.2 intervals from 4.0 to 6.0. Then, secretions are placed on 2 slides with a cotton swab and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride on one slide (saline wet mount) and with 10% potassium hydroxide on the other (KOH wet mount). The KOH wet mount is checked for a fishy odor (whiff test), which results from amines produced in trichomonal vaginitis or bacterial vaginosis. The saline wet mount is examined microscopically as soon as possible to detect trichomonads, which can become immotile and more difficult to recognize within minutes after slide preparation. Potassium hydroxide dissolves most cellular material except for yeast hyphae, making identification easier.
Clinical criteria and in-office testing are the most cost-effective way to diagnose infectious vaginitis. However, if findings are inconclusive, the discharge may be cultured for fungi or trichomonads. Also, some relatively new diagnostic tests are commercially available for clinical use (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
Other causes of discharge are ruled out:
A foreign body: If children have vaginal discharge, a vaginal foreign body is suspected.
Cervicitis: Cervical discharge due to cervicitis can resemble that of vaginitis.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Abdominal pain, cervical motion tenderness, or cervical inflammation suggests PID.
Cancer: Discharge that is watery, bloody, or both may result from vulvar, vaginal, or cervical cancer; cancers can be differentiated from vaginitis by examination and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests.
If children have trichomonal vaginitis, evaluation for sexual abuse is required. If they have unexplained vaginal discharge, cervicitis, which may be due to a sexually transmitted disease, should be considered. If women have bacterial vaginosis or trichomonal vaginitis (and thus are at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases), cervical tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, common causes of sexually transmitted PID, are done.
1. Cartwright CP, Lembke BD, Ramachandran K, et al: Development and validation of a semiquantitative, multitarget PCR assay for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol 50(7):2321–2329, 2012. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00506-12. Epub 2012 Apr 25.
2. Schwebke JR, Gaydos CA, Nyirjesy P, et al: Diagnostic performance of a molecular test versus clinician assessment of vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol 56(6):e00252-18, 2018. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00252-18. Print 2018 Jun.
3. Gaydos CA, Beqaj S, Schwebke JR, et al: Clinical validation of a test for the diagnosis of vaginitis. Obstet Gynecol 130(1):181–189, 2017. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002090.
4. Schwebke J, Merriweather A, Massingale S, et al: Screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in a large high-risk population: Prevalence among men and women determined by nucleic acid amplification testing. Sex Transm Dis 45(5):e23-e24, 2018. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000757.
5. Coleman JS, Gaydos CA: Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: An update. J Clin Microbiol 56(9):e00342–e00318, 2018. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00342-18. Print 2018 Sep.
The vulva should be kept as clean as possible. Soaps and unnecessary topical preparations (eg, feminine hygiene sprays) should be avoided. Intermittent use of ice packs or warm sitz baths with or without baking soda may reduce soreness and pruritus.
If symptoms are moderate or severe or do not respond to other measures, drugs may be needed. For pruritus due to noninfectious conditions, topical corticosteroids (eg, topical 1% hydrocortisone twice a day as needed) can be applied to the vulva but not in the vagina. Oral antihistamines decrease pruritus and cause drowsiness, helping patients sleep.
Prepubertal girls are taught good perineal hygiene (eg, wiping front to back after bowel movements and voiding, washing hands, avoiding fingering the perineum). If chronic vulvar inflammation is due to being bedbound or incontinent, better vulvar hygiene may help.
Common age-related causes of vaginitis include nonspecific (often hygiene-related) vaginitis and chemical irritation in children; bacterial vaginosis and candidal and trichomonal vaginitis in women of reproductive age; and atrophic vaginitis in postmenopausal women.
Diagnose vaginitis based mainly on clinical findings, measurement of vaginal pH, and examination of saline and KOH wet mounts.
Treat infectious and other specific causes, treat symptoms, and discuss ways to improve hygiene as appropriate with patients.