People acquire the infection by transferring the parasite's eggs from an object contaminated with infected cat feces to the mouth or by eating contaminated food.
Most infections cause few or no symptoms.
Women who become infected during pregnancy may transmit the parasite to the fetus, sometimes causing a miscarriage, stillbirth, or serious problems in the baby.
Typically, only people with a weakened immune system Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more have severe symptoms, usually resulting from brain inflammation (encephalitis), which may cause weakness on one side of the body, confusion, or coma.
Less often, other organs are affected in people with a weakened immune system.
Doctors usually diagnose the infection by doing blood tests that detect antibodies against the parasite.
Cooking meat thoroughly or freezing it and washing the hands thoroughly after handling raw meat, soil, or cat litter help prevent spread of the infection.
Most healthy people with toxoplasmosis do not require treatment, but adults with eye involvement, severe or persistent symptoms, or weakened immune systems, and pregnant women, and newborns with congenital infection are treated.
People with AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system are treated until the disease is under control and are then placed on preventative therapy until their immune deficiency is reversed by anti-retroviral therapy (for those with AIDS) or other measures.
(See also Overview of Parasitic Infections Overview of Parasitic Infections A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism (the host) and benefits (for example, by getting nutrients) from the host at the host's expense. Although this definition actually... read more .)
Toxoplasma gondii is present worldwide wherever there are cats. The parasite infects a large number of animals as well as people. Many people in the United States have been infected, although few ever develop symptoms. Severe infection usually develops only in fetuses and people with a disorder that weakens the immune system Disorders That Can Cause Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more (such as AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted... read more or cancer Overview of Cancer A cancer is an abnormal growth of cells (usually derived from a single abnormal cell). The cells have lost normal control mechanisms and thus are able to multiply continuously, invade nearby... read more ), or who use drugs that suppress the immune system Some Drugs That Can Cause Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more (immunosuppressants), particularly those used to suppress rejection of an organ transplant.
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Although the parasite can grow in the tissues of many animals, it produces eggs (oocysts) only in cells lining the intestine of cats. Eggs are shed in a cat’s stool and, after 1 to 5 days, become able to cause infection. Eggs in the soil are able to cause infection for months. Wild birds, rodents, deer, and many domestic animals (particularly pigs and sheep) may ingest the eggs in food or soil contaminated by cat stool. The eggs release forms of the parasite called tachyzoites. Tachyzoites spread in the animal's tissues and eventually form cysts.
Life Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii
People may acquire toxoplasmosis in several ways:
Eating food, water, or other materials (such as soil) that are contaminated with cat stool containing Toxoplasma eggs
Eating meat that contains Toxoplasma cysts
Spread from a newly infected mother to a fetus
Rarely, having a blood transfusion or organ transplant that contains the parasite
People may swallow Toxoplasma eggs after they touch contaminated cat litter, soil, or other objects and then touch their mouth or handle and eat food without washing their hands. People may swallow cysts when they eat raw or undercooked meat (usually pork or lamb) from infected animals.
Rarely, the parasite is transmitted through blood transfusions or by an organ transplanted from an infected person.
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
A woman who acquires the infection during pregnancy can transfer Toxoplasma gondii to her fetus through the placenta. Infection is more severe if the fetus is infected early in the pregnancy. The result may be a fetus that grows slowly, premature birth, a miscarriage, stillbirth, or a baby born with birth defects. Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause problems with vision, seizures, and intellectual disabilities later in life.
A woman who was infected before the pregnancy does not pass the parasite on to her fetus unless her immune system has been weakened (for example by HIV infection), reactivating her infection.
Toxoplasmosis in people with a weakened immune system
People with a weakened immune system Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more , primarily those who have AIDS or cancer or who take drugs to suppress rejection of an organ transplant Suppression of the Immune System Transplantation is the removal of living, functioning cells, tissues, or organs from the body and then their transfer back into the same body or into a different body. The most common type of... read more , are especially at risk of toxoplasmosis. If they have been infected in the past, developing a disorder that weakens the immune system or taking a drug that suppresses the immune system (immunosuppressants) may cause the infection to be reactivated.
A reactivated infection is most likely to occur in the brain, but it may affect the eye or spread throughout the body (disseminate).
In people with a weakened immune system, toxoplasmosis is very serious and may be fatal if untreated.
Symptoms of Toxoplasmosis
Most people with a healthy immune system have few or no toxoplasmosis symptoms and recover fully. About 10 to 20% of these people have swollen but painless lymph nodes. A few of these people also have intermittent low fevers, a vague ill feeling, muscle aches, and sometimes a sore throat. The symptoms disappear on their own, usually after several weeks.
Children born with congenital toxoplasmosis may be severely ill and die before or shortly after birth, or they may have birth defects. Some never become ill. Others appear healthy at first but develop symptoms (such as seizures, intellectual disability, or vision problems) months or even years later.
Typical symptoms in newborns can include
Infection of the lining of the back part of the eyeball and the retina (chorioretinitis Uveitis Uveitis is inflammation anywhere in the pigmented inside lining of the eye, known as the uvea or uveal tract. The uveal tract may become inflamed because of infection, injury, a bodywide autoimmune... read more )
Enlargement of the liver and spleen
A large head caused by accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is an accumulation of extra fluid in the normal spaces within the brain (ventricles) and/or between the inner and middle layers of tissues that cover the brain (the subarachnoid... read more )
Chorioretinitis can cause blurred vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and blindness.
Symptoms in people with a weakened immune system
Toxoplasmosis symptoms in people with a weakened immune system Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more depend on the site of infection, as in the following:
Toxoplasmosis of the brain (encephalitis): Symptoms such as weakness on one side of the body, trouble speaking, problems with vision, headache, confusion, seizures, and coma
Toxoplasmosis that has spread throughout the body (acute disseminated toxoplasmosis): A rash, fever, chills, trouble breathing, and fatigue
In some people (usually those with a greatly weakened immune system), toxoplasmosis causes inflammation of the lungs (pneumonitis), the heart (myocarditis Myocarditis Myocarditis is inflammation of the muscle tissue of the heart (myocardium) that causes tissue death. Myocarditis may be caused by many disorders, including infection, toxins and drugs that affect... read more ), or, less commonly, the liver (hepatitis Overview of Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis.) Hepatitis is common throughout the world. Hepatitis can be Acute (short-lived) read more ). The affected organ may stop functioning adequately (called organ failure). Without treatment, these types of toxoplasmosis are usually fatal.
Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis
Blood tests to detect antibodies against the parasite
If the brain may be affected, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, followed by a spinal tap Spinal Tap Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more (lumbar puncture)
Tissue from the brain or other affected organ examined microscopically and tested for the parasite's DNA
The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is usually based on blood tests that detect antibodies against the parasite. (Antibodies Antibodies One of the body's lines of defense (immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and... read more are proteins produced by the immune system to help defend the body against attack, including that by parasites.) The blood tests can be used to diagnose a new infection.
Doctors may do these blood tests in people who have a weakened immune system but have no symptoms of toxoplasmosis. The tests are done to look for evidence of a previous infection, which could reactivate if their immune system weakens further. However, if the person’s immune system is impaired by AIDS, the blood tests may indicate no infection when one is present (false-negative results).
Sometimes tests to check for the parasite's genetic material (DNA) are also done on the samples of blood, tissue from a biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that surrounds the brain or spinal cord) obtained from a spinal tap Spinal Tap Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more .
If people report eye problems, doctors check the eyes for the damage typically caused by toxoplasmosis and do blood tests to check for antibodies to the parasite.
To determine whether a fetus has been infected, a doctor can take a sample of the fluid around the fetus (amniotic fluid) to be analyzed (a procedure called amniocentesis Amniocentesis Prenatal diagnostic testing involves testing the fetus before birth (prenatally) to determine whether the fetus has certain abnormalities, including certain hereditary or spontaneous genetic... read more ). The fluid is tested for antibodies to the parasite and for the parasite's genetic material. Because diagnosing toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or in the fetus or newborn is difficult, doctors often consult with an expert.
If toxoplasmosis of the brain is suspected, computed tomography Computed Tomography (CT) In computed tomography (CT), which used to be called computed axial tomography (CAT), an x-ray source and x-ray detector rotate around a person. In modern scanners, the x-ray detector usually... read more (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves are used to produce highly detailed images. MRI does not use x-rays and is usually very safe... read more (MRI) of the brain are done, usually followed by a spinal tap Spinal Tap Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for testing. Less commonly, a piece of infected brain tissue is removed and examined under a microscope to identify parasites and tested for the parasite's genetic material (DNA).
Prevention of Toxoplasmosis
Pregnant women should avoid contact with cats. If contact is unavoidable, pregnant women should at least avoid cleaning cat litter boxes or wear gloves when doing so.
Meat should be cooked thoroughly, to a temperature of 165 to 170° F (74 to 77° C), and hands should be washed thoroughly after handling raw meat, soil, or cat litter.
Potential organ donors should be tested to prevent the spread of the parasite through transplanted organs.
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) may be used to prevent reactivation of toxoplasmosis in certain people with AIDS or other conditions that cause the immune system to be weakened. People who cannot take this drug may be given pyrimethamine (an antiprotozoan drug) plus sulfadiazine or clindamycin (antibiotics). Other options are atovaquone (an antiprotozoan drug) with or without pyrimethamine, or dapsone with pyrimethamine. Because pyrimethamine can decrease blood cell production in the bone marrow, leucovorin (also called folinic acid) is given with it to help protect against this side effect.
People with AIDS are also given antiretroviral drugs Drug Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Antiretroviral drugs used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection aim to do the following: Reduce the amount of HIV RNA (viral load) in the blood to an undetectable amount Restore... read more , which help strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk that toxoplasmosis will be reactivated.
Treatment of Toxoplasmosis
Pyrimethamine and either sulfadiazine, clindamycin, or atovaquone, plus leucovorin; or alternatively, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
For eye infections, drugs effective against toxoplasmosis and a corticosteroid
Most infected people without symptoms and with a healthy immune system do not require treatment.
People with symptoms of toxoplasmosis can be treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin. Leucovorin is given to help protect against decreased blood cell production in the bone marrow, which is a side effect of pyrimethamine. If people cannot take sulfadiazine, clindamycin, or atovaquone can be used instead. When pyrimethamine is not available, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is used.
If people have a healthy immune system, they are usually treated for a few weeks.
People with AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system are given the same drugs but are treated longer (usually for at least 6 weeks) until all signs of infection are gone. Relapses are common, and there are several options for chronic maintenance therapy, which is continued until their immune system improves.
In people with AIDS, toxoplasmosis tends to recur, so drugs to control toxoplasmosis are continued indefinitely unless the immune system improves (indicated by an increase in the CD4 count Monitoring Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted... read more to an acceptable level). Doctors make sure that the most effective antiretroviral drugs are being used.
People with an eye infection can be given pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine (or clindamycin) plus leucovorin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is an alternative. Prednisone or another corticosteroid is usually given at the same time to reduce inflammation inside of the eye.
Women who acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy should see a doctor who specializes in toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. The choice of drugs is complicated and depends on when the pregnant woman acquired the infection (which trimester) and whether the fetus has already been infected. Pyrimethamine can cause birth defects and is not used during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. Spiramycin (an antibiotic) may be used during the 1st trimester to help prevent the spread of toxoplasmosis from the woman to the fetus. Spiramycin is not commercially available in the United States.
Newborns who were infected before birth are usually given pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and leucovorin for a year after birth.
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