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Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

(Sulfatide Lipidosis)

By

Matt Demczko

, MD, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Last full review/revision Apr 2020| Content last modified Apr 2020
CLICK HERE FOR THE PROFESSONAL VERSION
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy occurs when the body lacks enzymes needed to break down a certain lipid.

  • Symptoms vary depending on whether the child has the infantile form or the juvenile form but may include paralysis, dementia, and nerve problems.

  • The diagnosis may be made by doing prenatal screening tests, nerve conduction studies, and blood and urine tests.

  • This disease causes premature death.

  • This disease cannot be treated or cured, but treatment options are being studied.

Sphingolipidoses occur when people do not have the enzymes needed to break down (metabolize) sphingolipids, which are compounds that protect the cell surface and serve certain functions in the cells. There are many types of sphingolipidoses besides metachromatic leukodystrophy:

In metachromatic leukodystrophy, an enzyme needed to break down a certain lipid, called arylsulfatase A, is not working correctly. This lipid builds up in the white matter of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, kidneys, spleen, and other organs. This buildup results in demyelination. Demyelination is the destruction of the tissue that wraps around nerves, called the myelin sheath. When the myelin sheath is damaged, nerves do not conduct electrical impulses normally. When impulses are not conducted normally, movements are jerky, uncoordinated, and awkward.

Types of metachromatic leukodystrophy

In the infantile form, a child has progressive paralysis and dementia, meaning that the paralysis and dementia get worse throughout the life of the child. Symptoms of this form usually begin before 4 years of age and result in death by about age 9.

In the juvenile form, children have problems walking, intellectual impairment, and weakness, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet. Symptoms of this form begin between 4 years and 16 years of age.

There is also a milder adult form.

Diagnosis of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

  • Prenatal screening tests

  • Blood and urine tests

  • Nerve conduction studies

  • Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging

Doctors also measure levels of arylsulfatase A in white blood cells or skin cells. Genetic testing Genetic Screening Genetic screening is used to determine whether a couple is at increased risk of having a baby with a hereditary genetic disorder. Hereditary genetic disorders are disorders of chromosomes or... read more , which is used to determine whether a couple is at increased risk of having a baby with a hereditary genetic disorder, is also available.

Treatment of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy

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Separation Anxiety and Stranger Anxiety
An important part of normal development is an infant’s growing attachment to its parents. As this bond strengthens, the infant may express fear or anxiety when the parents leave. This “separation anxiety” typically begins at around 8 months of age and resolves at around 24 months of age. Which of the following is the normal and expected infant behavior in reaction to a parent leaving the room during the time period of separation anxiety?
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