Often the main symptom is a skin burn, but not all serious injuries are visible.
Doctors check the person for abnormal heart rhythms, fractures, dislocations, and spinal cord or other injuries.
Abnormal heart rhythms are monitored, burns are treated, and, if the burn caused extensive internal damage, intravenous fluids and other treatments are given.
Electrical injury may result from contact with faulty electrical appliances or machinery or inadvertent contact with household wiring or electrical power lines. Getting shocked from touching an electrical outlet in the home or by a small appliance is rarely serious, but accidental exposure to high voltage causes about 300 deaths each year in the United States.
How electricity affects the body
Electrical current passing through the body generates heat, which burns and destroys tissues. Burns can affect internal tissues as well as the skin. An electrical shock can short-circuit the body’s own electrical systems, causing nerves to stop transmitting impulses or to transmit impulses erratically. Abnormal impulse transmission can affect the
Muscles, causing them to contract violently
Brain, causing seizures Seizure Disorders In seizure disorders, the brain's electrical activity is periodically disturbed, resulting in some degree of temporary brain dysfunction. Many people have unusual sensations just before... read more , loss of consciousness Fainting Light-headedness (near syncope) is a sense that one is about to faint. Fainting (syncope) is a sudden, brief loss of consciousness during which the person falls to the ground or slumps in a... read more , or other abnormalities
The severity of the injury ranges from minor to fatal and is determined by the following factors:
Intensity of the current
Type of current
Pathway of the current through the body
Duration of exposure to the current
Electrical resistance to the current
Intensity of the current
The intensity of the current is measured in volts and amperes. Ordinary household current in the United States is 110 to 220 volts. In many other countries, standard household current is 220 volts. A standard electrical outlet in the US is 110 volts, and 220 volts is used for large appliances such as dryers or refrigerators. Anything over 500 volts is considered high voltage. High voltage can jump (arc) through the air anywhere from an inch up to several feet, depending on the voltage. Thus, a person may be injured simply by coming too close to a high-voltage line. High voltage causes more severe injuries than low voltage and is more likely to cause internal damage.
Type of current
Electrical current is categorized as direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC). Direct current, such as current generated by batteries, flows in the same direction constantly. Alternating current, such as current available through household wall sockets connected to the power grid, changes direction 50 to 60 times per second.
Alternating current is more dangerous than direct current. Direct current tends to cause a single muscle contraction often strong enough to force people away from the current’s source. Alternating current causes a continuing muscle contraction, often preventing people from releasing their grip on the current’s source. As a result, exposure may be prolonged. Even a small amount of alternating current—barely enough to be felt as a mild shock—may cause the grip to freeze. Slightly more alternating current can cause the chest muscles to contract, making breathing impossible. Even more current can cause deadly abnormal heart rhythms Overview of Abnormal Heart Rhythms Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) are sequences of heartbeats that are irregular, too fast, too slow, or conducted via an abnormal electrical pathway through the heart. Heart disorders are... read more (arrhythmias).
Pathway of the current
The path that the electricity takes through the body tends to determine which tissues are affected. Because alternating current continually reverses direction, the commonly used terms “entry” and “exit” are inappropriate. The terms “source” and “ground” are more precise. The most common source point for electricity is the hand, and the second most common is the head. The most common ground point is the foot. A current that travels from arm to arm or from arm to leg may go through the heart and is much more dangerous than a current that travels between a leg and the ground. A current that travels through the head may affect the brain.
Duration of exposure
In general, the longer the person is exposed to the current, the worse the injury.
Resistance to the current
Resistance is the ability to impede the flow of electricity. Most of the body’s resistance is concentrated in the skin. The thicker the skin is, the greater its resistance. A thick, callused palm or sole, for example, is much more resistant to electrical current than an area of thin skin, such as an inner arm. The skin’s resistance decreases when broken (for example, punctured or scraped) or when wet. If skin resistance is high, more of the damage is local, often causing only skin burns Burns . If skin resistance is low, more of the damage affects the internal organs. Thus, the damage is mostly internal if people who are wet come in contact with electrical current, for example, when a hair dryer falls into a bathtub or people step in a puddle that is in contact with a downed electrical line.
Symptoms of Electrical Injuries
Often, the main symptom of an electrical injury is a skin burn, although not all electrical injuries cause external damage. High-voltage injuries may cause massive internal burns. If muscle damage is extensive, a limb may swell so much that its arteries become compressed (compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is increased pressure in the space around certain muscles. It occurs when injured muscles swell so much that they cut off their blood supply. Pain in the injured limb increases... read more ), cutting off blood supply to the limb. If a current travels close to the eyes, it may lead to cataracts Cataract A cataract is a clouding (opacity) of the lens of the eye that causes a progressive, painless loss of vision. Vision may be blurred, contrast may be lost, and halos may be visible around lights... read more . Cataracts can develop within days of the injury or years later. If large amounts of muscle are damaged (a disorder called rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis occurs when muscle fibers damaged by disease, injury, or toxic substances break down and release their contents into the bloodstream. Severe disease can cause acute kidney injury... read more ), a chemical substance, myoglobin, is released into the blood. The myoglobin can damage the kidneys.
Young children who bite or suck on electrical cords can burn their mouth and lips. These burns may cause facial deformities and growth problems of the teeth, jaw, and face. An added danger is that severe bleeding from an artery in the lip may occur when the scab falls off, usually 5 to 10 days after the injury.
A minor shock may cause muscle pain and may trigger mild muscle contractions or startle people, causing a fall. Severe shocks can cause abnormal heart rhythms Overview of Abnormal Heart Rhythms Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) are sequences of heartbeats that are irregular, too fast, too slow, or conducted via an abnormal electrical pathway through the heart. Heart disorders are... read more , ranging from inconsequential to immediately fatal. Severe shocks can also trigger powerful muscle contractions sufficient to throw people to the ground or to cause joint dislocations, bone fractures, and other blunt injuries.
The nerves and brain can be injured in various ways, causing seizures, bleeding (hemorrhage) in the brain, poor short-term memory, personality changes, irritability, or difficulty sleeping. Damage to the nerves in the body or a spinal cord injury Injuries of the Spinal Cord and Vertebrae Most spinal cord injuries result from motor vehicle crashes, falls, assaults, and sports injuries. Symptoms, such as loss of sensation, loss of muscle strength, and loss of bowel, bladder, and... read more may cause weakness, paralysis, numbness, tingling, chronic pain, and erectile dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction (ED) Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to attain or sustain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse. (See also Overview of Sexual Dysfunction in Men.) Every man occasionally has... read more (impotence).
Diagnosis of Electrical Injuries
A doctor's evaluation
Doctors check people for burns, fractures, dislocations, and spinal cord or other injuries.
Most people who have no symptoms, have no known heart disorders, have had only brief exposure to low levels of current, and are not pregnant do not require testing or monitoring. An electrocardiogram Electrocardiography Electrocardiography (ECG) is a quick, simple, painless procedure in which the heart’s electrical impulses are amplified and recorded. This record, the electrocardiogram (also known as an ECG)... read more (ECG) is done to monitor the heartbeat in some people. For some people, blood and urine tests may be needed. If people are unconscious, imaging tests Overview of Imaging Tests Imaging tests provide a picture of the body’s interior—of the whole body or part of it. Imaging helps doctors diagnose a disorder, determine how severe the disorder is, and monitor people after... read more such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain may be needed.
Prevention of Electrical Injuries
Education about and respect for electricity are essential. Making sure that all electrical devices are properly designed, installed, and maintained helps prevent electrical injuries at home and work. Electrical wiring should be installed and serviced by properly trained people. Outlet guards reduce risk in homes with infants or young children.
Any electrical device that touches or may be touched by the body should be properly grounded. Three-pronged outlets are safest. Cutting off the lower (ground) prong of a power cord with three prongs (so that it will fit older two-pronged plugs) is dangerous and increases the chances of electrical injury. Circuit breakers that interrupt (trip) circuits when current as low as 5 milliamperes leaks are advisable in areas that get wet, such as kitchens and bathrooms and outdoors.
To avoid injury from current that jumps (arcing injury), poles and ladders should not be used near high-voltage power lines.
Treatment of Electrical Injuries
First the person must be separated from the current’s source. The safest way to do so is to shut off the current—for example, by throwing a circuit breaker or switch or by disconnecting the device from an electrical outlet. No one should touch the person until the current has been shut off.
High-voltage and low-voltage lines are difficult to distinguish, especially outdoors. Shutting off current to high-voltage lines is done by the local power company. Many well-meaning rescuers have been injured by electricity when trying to free a person.
Once the person can be safely touched, the rescuer should check to see if the person is breathing and has a pulse. If the person is not breathing and has no pulse, cardiopulmonary resuscitation First-Aid Treatment Cardiac arrest is when the heart stops pumping blood and oxygen to the brain and other organs and tissues. Sometimes a person can be revived after cardiac arrest, particularly if treatment is... read more (CPR) should be started immediately. Emergency medical assistance should be called for any person who has more than a minor injury. Because the extent of an electrical burn may be deceptive, medical assistance should be sought if any doubt exists regarding severity.
People with rhabdomyolysis are usually given large amounts of fluids intravenously.
A tetanus shot After a wound Tetanus results from a toxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin makes muscles contract involuntarily and become rigid. Tetanus usually develops after a wound... read more is given if needed.
If the injury is painful, people are given analgesics.
Skin burns Burns are treated with burn cream and sterile dressings. A person with only minor skin burns can usually be treated at home. If the injury is more severe, the person is admitted to the hospital, ideally a burn center. The person is kept in the hospital for 6 to 12 hours if any of the following exists:
The person has symptoms of a heart problem (for example, chest pain Chest Pain Chest pain is a very common complaint. Pain may be sharp or dull, although some people with a chest disorder describe their sensation as discomfort, tightness, pressure, gas, burning, or aching... read more or sometimes shortness of breath Shortness of Breath Shortness of breath—what doctors call dyspnea—is the unpleasant sensation of having difficulty breathing. People experience and describe shortness of breath differently depending on the cause... read more )
The person has other severe injuries
The person is pregnant (in many, but not necessarily all, cases)
The person has a known heart problem (in many, but not necessarily all, cases)
Young children who bite or suck on electrical cords should be referred to a children’s orthodontist, an oral surgeon, or a surgeon who is experienced in the care of these injuries.
The following are some English-language resources that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Electrical Safety: This important repository of tips for ensuring workplace safety provides information on the scope of electrical hazards faced by workers, as well as how to mitigate them and treat their effects.
Electrical Safety Foundation International (ESFI): Information on how to ensure electrical safety in the home and workplace, including information on how to recognize warning signs of electrical hazards as well as advances in safety technology.