The cause is unknown.
Lymph nodes enlarge but are usually not painful.
Other symptoms such as fever, itching, and shortness of breath can develop depending on where the cancer cells are growing.
A lymph node biopsy is needed for diagnosis.
Chemotherapy, combinations of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, and radiation therapy are used for treatment.
Most people are cured.
(See also Overview of Lymphoma Overview of Lymphoma Lymphomas are cancers of lymphocytes, which reside in the lymphatic system and in blood-forming organs. Lymphomas are cancers of a specific type of white blood cells known as lymphocytes. These... read more and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a diverse group of cancers of types of white blood cell called lymphocytes t. Often, lymph nodes in the neck, under the arms, or in the groin enlarge rapidly and painlessly... read more .)
Lymphomas are cancers of a specific type of white blood cells known as lymphocytes Acquired Immunity One of the body's lines of defense ( immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and... read more . These cells help fight infections. Lymphomas can develop from either B or T lymphocytes, the two main types of lymphocyte. T lymphocytes are important in regulating the immune system and in fighting viral infections. B lymphocytes produce antibodies Antibodies One of the body's lines of defense ( immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and... read more , which are essential in fighting off some infections.
In the United States, about 8,500 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma occur every year. The disease is more common in males than in females—about three men are affected for every two women. Hodgkin lymphoma rarely occurs before age 10. It is most common in people between the ages of 15 and 40 and in people older than 60.
Causes of Hodgkin Lymphoma
The cause of Hodgkin lymphoma is unknown, but exposure to the Epstein-Barr virus Infectious Mononucleosis Epstein-Barr virus causes a number of diseases, including infectious mononucleosis. The virus is spread through kissing. Symptoms vary, but the most common are extreme fatigue, fever, sore throat... read more may play a role in some people. There may also be a hereditary association. Although there are some families in which more than one person has Hodgkin lymphoma, it is not contagious. There are no genetic screening tests, and routine screening of children or siblings is not recommended.
Other people at risk for Hodgkin lymphoma include those with
Inherited immunodeficiency syndromes such as ataxia-telangiectasia Ataxia-Telangiectasia Ataxia-telangiectasia is a hereditary disorder characterized by incoordination, dilated capillaries, and an immunodeficiency that causes increased susceptibility to infections. In children with... read more , Klinefelter syndrome Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality in which boys are born with two or more X chromosomes, instead of one, and one Y (XXY). Klinefelter syndrome occurs when a boy has one extra... read more , Chédiak-Higashi syndrome Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is a very rare hereditary disorder characterized by recurrent bacterial respiratory and other infections and lack of pigment in the hair, eyes, and skin (albinism).... read more , and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a hereditary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by abnormal antibody (immunoglobulin) production, T-cell (lymphocyte) malfunction, a low platelet count, and... read more
Acquired immunodeficiency caused by disorders such as HIV infection or drugs used after solid organ transplantation
Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis in which joints, usually including those of the hands and feet, are inflamed, resulting in swelling, pain, and often destruction of joints.... read more , celiac sprue Celiac Disease Celiac disease is a hereditary intolerance to gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye) that causes characteristic changes in the lining of the small intestine, resulting in malabsorption... read more , Sjögren syndrome Sjögren Syndrome Sjögren syndrome is a common autoimmune rheumatic disorder and is characterized by excessive dryness of the eyes, mouth, and other mucous membranes. White blood cells can infiltrate and damage... read more , and systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory connective tissue disorder that can involve joints, kidneys, skin, mucous membranes, and blood vessel walls. Problems in the... read more
Symptoms of Hodgkin Lymphoma
People with Hodgkin lymphoma usually become aware of one or more enlarged lymph nodes, most often in the neck but sometimes in the armpit or groin. Although usually painless, in rare cases the enlarged lymph nodes may be painful for a few hours after a person drinks alcoholic beverages.
People with Hodgkin lymphoma sometimes experience fever, night sweats, and weight loss. They can also have itching and fatigue. Some people have an unusual pattern of high temperature for several days alternating with normal or below-normal temperature for days or weeks. This is sometimes referred to as Pel-Ebstein fever. Other symptoms may develop, depending on where the cancerous cells are growing. For example, enlargement of lymph nodes in the chest may partially narrow and irritate airways, resulting in a cough, chest discomfort, or shortness of breath. Enlargement of the spleen or lymph nodes in the abdomen may cause discomfort in the abdomen.
Diagnosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Lymph node biopsy
Doctors suspect Hodgkin lymphoma when a person with no apparent infection develops persistent and painless enlargement of lymph nodes that lasts for several weeks. The suspicion is stronger when lymph node enlargement is accompanied by fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Rapid and painful enlargement of lymph nodes—which may occur when a person has a cold or infection—is not typical of Hodgkin lymphoma. Sometimes enlarged lymph nodes deep within the chest or abdomen are found unexpectedly when a chest x-ray or computed tomography (CT) scan is done for another reason.
Abnormalities in blood cell counts and other blood tests may provide supportive evidence. However, to make the diagnosis, doctors must do a biopsy of an affected lymph node to see if it is abnormal and if Reed-Sternberg cells are present. Reed-Sternberg cells are large cancerous cells that have more than one nucleus (a structure inside a cell that holds the cell's genetic material). Their distinctive appearance can be seen when a biopsy specimen of lymph node tissue is examined under a microscope.
The type of biopsy depends on which node is enlarged and how much tissue is needed. Doctors must remove enough tissue to be able to distinguish Hodgkin lymphoma from other disorders that can cause lymph node enlargement, including non-Hodgkin lymphomas Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a diverse group of cancers of types of white blood cell called lymphocytes t. Often, lymph nodes in the neck, under the arms, or in the groin enlarge rapidly and painlessly... read more , infections, inflammation, or other types of cancer.
The best way to obtain enough tissue is with an excisional biopsy (a small incision made to remove a piece of the lymph node). Occasionally, when an enlarged lymph node is close to the body's surface, a sufficient amount of tissue can be obtained by inserting a hollow needle (under ultrasound or CT guidance) through the skin and into the lymph node (core needle biopsy). When an enlarged lymph node is deep inside the abdomen or chest, surgery may be needed to obtain a piece of tissue.
Staging of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Sometimes, bone marrow biopsy
Before treatment is started, doctors must determine how extensively the lymphoma has spread—the stage of the disease. The choice of treatment and the expected outcome of treatment (prognosis) depend on a variety of factors, including the stage. An initial examination may detect only a single enlarged lymph node, but procedures to find if and where the lymphoma has spread (staging) may detect considerably more disease.
The disease is classified into four stages based on the extent of its spread (I, II, III, IV). The higher the number, the more the lymphoma has spread. Limited stage disease includes stages I and II; advanced stage disease includes stages III and IV. In stages I and II, if Hodgkin lymphoma is present in an organ outside the lymph system, it is classified as stage IE or IIE. Bulky disease is the term used when there is a mass in the chest greater than 10 cm (about 4 inches) in diameter.
The four stages are subdivided, based on the absence (A) or presence (B) of one or more of the following symptoms:
Unexplained fever (more than 100° F [about 37.5° C] for 3 consecutive days)
Unexplained loss of more than 10% of body weight in the preceding 6 months
For example, a person with stage II lymphoma who has experienced night sweats is said to have stage IIB Hodgkin lymphoma.
Several procedures are used to stage or assess Hodgkin lymphoma. Basic blood tests, including liver and kidney function tests, tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted... read more and hepatitis B Overview of Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis.) Hepatitis is common throughout the world. Hepatitis can be Acute (short-lived) read more and hepatitis C infection Overview of Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis.) Hepatitis is common throughout the world. Hepatitis can be Acute (short-lived) read more , and imaging with computed tomography (CT) combined with positron emission tomography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of radionuclide scanning. A radionuclide is a radioactive form of an element, which means it is an unstable atom that becomes more stable by releasing... read more (PET) of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are standard.
Combined PET-CT PET computed tomography (PET-CT) Positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of radionuclide scanning. A radionuclide is a radioactive form of an element, which means it is an unstable atom that becomes more stable by releasing... read more is the most sensitive technique for determining the stage of Hodgkin lymphoma and for evaluating the person's response to treatment. Because living tissue can be identified with PET, doctors can use this imaging technique to distinguish scar tissue from active Hodgkin lymphoma after the person has undergone treatment (although PET is not always accurate because inflammation can also be detected by PET).
If combined PET-CT scan is not available, a contrast CT scan of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis and a bone marrow biopsy Bone Marrow Examination Red blood cells, most white blood cells, and platelets are produced in the bone marrow, the soft fatty tissue inside bone cavities. Sometimes a sample of bone marrow must be examined to determine... read more are done instead. Other tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves are used to produce highly detailed images. MRI does not use x-rays and is usually very safe... read more of the brain or spinal cord are done if symptoms of the nervous system are present.
Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma do not need surgery to determine whether the disorder has spread to the abdomen because of the accuracy of the PET scan and the fact that all people receive chemotherapy, which treats the lymphoma no matter where it is located.
Treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma
Sometimes stem cell transplantation
With chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. Although an ideal drug would destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells, most drugs are not that selective. Instead, drugs... read more , with or without radiation therapy Radiation Therapy for Cancer Radiation is a form of intense energy generated by a radioactive substance, such as cobalt, or by specialized equipment, such as an atomic particle (linear) accelerator. Radiation preferentially... read more , most people who have Hodgkin lymphoma can be cured.
Before treatment and where applicable, men should be offered sperm banking, and women should discuss options to preserve fertility with their oncologists and a fertility specialist.
Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy
Chemotherapy is used for all stages of disease. Doctors usually use more than one chemotherapy drug. Several combinations may be used and may include immunotherapy drugs as well. Immunotherapy drugs are made up of antibodies that attack cancer cells. Involved field radiation therapy (radiation therapy delivered only to the affected areas of the body, avoiding exposing unaffected areas to radiation) may be added after chemotherapy. Radiation therapy is usually given on an outpatient basis over about 3 to 4 weeks.
About 85% of people with stage I or stage II disease are cured with chemotherapy alone or with chemotherapy plus involved field radiation therapy. The cure rate of people with stage III disease ranges from 70 to 80%. Cure rates for people with stage IV disease, while not as high, are above 60%.
Although chemotherapy greatly improves the chances for a cure, side effects can be serious. The drugs may cause
Temporary or permanent infertility
An increased risk of infection
Potential damage to other organs, such as the heart or lungs
Reversible hair loss
After radiation therapy, there is an increased risk of cancer, such as lung, breast, or stomach cancer, occurring 10 or more years after treatment in organs that were in the radiation field. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and leukemias Overview of Leukemia Leukemias are cancers of white blood cells or of cells that develop into white blood cells. White blood cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Sometimes the development goes awry... read more may develop in some people many years after successful treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma, regardless of the treatment used.
A person who has a remission (the disease under control) after initial treatment but then relapses (lymphoma cells reappear) may still be cured with another treatment. The cure rate for people who relapse is at least 50%. Among people who relapse in the first 12 months after initial treatment, cure rates are somewhat lower, whereas the rates for people who relapse later tend to be somewhat higher.
People who relapse after initial treatment generally are treated with a “salvage” chemotherapy regimen followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation Stem Cell Transplantation Stem cell transplantation is the removal of stem cells (undifferentiated cells) from a healthy person and their injection into someone who has a serious blood disorder. (See also Overview of... read more , which involves using the person's own stem cells. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation is generally a safe procedure, with less than a 1 to 2% risk of death related to the treatment. Immunotherapy drugs are also used to treat people who have a relapse.
After treatment has been finished, people have regular doctor's examinations and tests to look for return of the lymphoma (posttreatment surveillance) for a period of 5 years. Tests typically include blood tests and CT scans of the chest and pelvis. If people have had radiation therapy, doctors also do tests, such as mammography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breasts and thyroid tests, to see if a new cancer developed in those organs.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Leukemia & Lymphoma Society: Hodgkin Lymphoma: Comprehensive information on Hodgkin lymphoma, including diagnosis, treatment, and support