(See also Bacteremia Bacteremia Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia may result from ordinary activities (such as vigorous toothbrushing), dental or medical procedures, or from infections ... read more in adults.)
Children younger than 3 years commonly develop fevers. Most of the time, they have other symptoms, such as a cough and runny nose, which help doctors diagnose the cause of the fever. Sometimes, however, children have fever and no other symptoms. That is, they have a fever with no apparent source or cause. In most of these children, the fever is caused by a viral infection that goes away without treatment. In some of these children, a urinary tract infection Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder (cystitis), the kidneys (pyelonephritis), or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger... read more is present. In a few children who have fever with no obvious cause, the fever is caused by bacteria circulating in their bloodstream (bacteremia). Circulating bacteria are almost never the cause of fever in older children or adults who have no other symptoms.
In the past, children 3 to 36 months of age who had a temperature higher than or equal to 102.2° F (39° C) and no other symptoms were evaluated by doctors for occult bacteremia. Most occult bacteremia was caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A smaller percentage was caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, and an even smaller percentage was caused by Neisseria meningitidis. In infants and young children, these bacteria circulating in the bloodstream could attack various organs, resulting in serious illnesses, such as pneumonia Overview of Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the small air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) and the tissues around them. Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Often, pneumonia is the final... read more , meningitis Meningitis in Children Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the layers of tissue covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Bacterial meningitis in older infants and children usually results from bacteria... read more , or sepsis Sepsis and Septic Shock Sepsis is a serious bodywide response to bacteremia or another infection plus malfunction or failure of an essential system in the body. Septic shock is life-threatening low blood pressure ... read more . Because about 5 to 10% of children with occult bacteremia developed these serious illnesses, doctors did blood tests and blood cultures (growing bacteria in a laboratory) to identify the bacteria before such problems developed. If children had an elevated white blood cell count, which indicated a higher risk of bacterial infection, doctors sometimes gave the children antibiotics before the blood culture results were available.
Now, routine vaccination Childhood Vaccination Schedule Most doctors follow the vaccination schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC—see the schedule for infants and children and the schedule for older children... read more of infants with the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine helps protect against bacterial infections due to Hib, such as pneumonia and meningitis. These infections may be serious in children. Use of the... read more and the Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal Vaccine Pneumococcal vaccines help protect against bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci). Pneumococcal infections include ear infections, sinusitis, pneumonia, bloodstream... read more has nearly eliminated occult bacteremia caused by these bacteria in vaccinated children. Vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcal Vaccine The meningococcal vaccine protects against infections caused by the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis (meningococci). Meningococcal infections can lead to meningitis (an infection of tissue covering... read more are given to certain children under 36 months of age who have an increased risk of infection. Children who have received their recommended vaccines are very unlikely to develop occult bacteremia. However, occult bacteremia can still occur in children who have received no vaccines or not enough doses and in children who have an impaired immune system.
(See also Overview of Bacterial Infections in Childhood Overview of Bacterial Infections in Children Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. Only some bacteria cause disease in people. Other bacteria live inside the intestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or on the skin without causing... read more .)
The major symptom of occult bacteremia is
Children who have other symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, little or no interest in anything (listlessness), or red or blue discoloration of the skin, are not considered to have occult bacteremia. They most likely have a specific bacterial infection.
Because doctors cannot tell with certainty which children who have a fever have occult bacteremia, doctors need to identify any bacteria by doing a blood culture. Because the bacteria are too few or too small to see, doctors send samples of blood to the laboratory so the bacteria can be examined and grown (cultured Culture of Microorganisms Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Doctors suspect an infection based on the person's symptoms, physical examination results,... read more ) for identification.
Infants or children of any age who have a fever and who appear seriously ill, regardless of whether they have received vaccinations, have samples of blood, urine, and spinal fluid taken for testing. The spinal fluid is removed during a spinal tap Spinal Tap Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more (lumbar puncture), which involves withdrawing a sample of spinal fluid with a small needle. All samples are sent to a laboratory for testing to look for signs of bacterial infection. In most cases, the infant or child is admitted to the hospital and given antibiotics. Children who have trouble breathing will likely have a chest x-ray as well.
Other blood tests and stool tests may also be done depending on the age of the child.
Rapid detection tests for certain viruses may also be done in some children. For these tests, a swab is used to take a sample from the nose or throat. The results usually are available within a few hours.
When infants are under 3 months of age and have a fever, doctors cannot always tell just by looking at them whether they could have bacteremia. In these infants, doctors usually do laboratory tests (complete blood count, urinalysis, and blood cultures). If the results of the blood and urine tests seem normal, some doctors have the parents or caretakers monitor the infant at home and then return to the doctor's office within 24 hours so the infant can be re-examined and the blood cultures checked. They do not prescribe antibiotics during this time. Other doctors prefer to admit these infants to the hospital and do further tests of the blood, urine, and spinal fluid. Most doctors consider infants less than 30 days old to be at high risk of bacteremia. Infants in this age group are typically admitted to the hospital and tests of the blood, urine, and spinal fluid are done.
Infants and children in this age group who have a fever but who have complete routine vaccinations and who appear well are at very low risk of bacteremia. Because of this low risk, doctors may decide to monitor the children without doing blood tests. However, a urinalysis and a urine culture are typically done to look for a urinary tract infection Urine tests A urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection of the urinary bladder (cystitis), the kidneys (pyelonephritis), or both. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria. Infants and younger... read more as a cause of the fever. The parents or caretakers are asked to monitor the children's symptoms and follow up with the doctor (by visit or telephone) in 24 to 48 hours. Children who worsen or whose fever does not go away have blood tests and possibly chest x-rays or a spinal tap.
Sometimes, before results of the culture are known, doctors give an antibiotic to children who have a fever and who appear seriously ill and who are at high risk of bacteremia. Usually, doctors give an injectable antibiotic such as ceftriaxone.
Children with positive culture results who do not appear very ill are given an injectable antibiotic or antibiotics by mouth at home. Children who have positive culture results and who show signs of serious illness are admitted to the hospital and given antibiotics by vein.
All children who were being observed at home are re-examined in 24 to 48 hours. Children who still have fever or who have positive blood or urine cultures and have not been given antibiotics already have more cultures done and are hospitalized. They are then evaluated for serious illness and are given antibiotics by vein.
Children 3 months to 3 years of age may be given drugs, such as acetaminophen, that lower body temperature and make children feel better.