(See also Evaluation of the Dental Patient Evaluation of the Dental Patient The first routine dental examination should take place by age 1 year or when the first tooth erupts. Subsequent evaluations should take place at 6-month intervals or whenever symptoms develop... read more .)
Burning mouth syndrome usually affects postmenopausal women. It is believed to be neurogenic, affecting nerves of pain and taste. Causes of secondary burning mouth syndrome include
Nutritional deficiency (vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 Deficiency Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency usually results from inadequate absorption, but deficiency can develop in vegans who do not take vitamin supplements. Deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia, damage... read more , iron Iron Deficiency Iron (Fe) is a component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and many enzymes in the body. Heme iron is contained mainly in animal products. It is absorbed much better than nonheme iron (eg, in plants... read more )
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors A number of drug classes are effective for initial and subsequent management of hypertension: Adrenergic modifiers Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor blockers... read more
Burning mouth syndrome may cause burning, tingling, or numbness of the tongue or other areas of the mouth, including the lips. The pain may be constant or increase throughout the day and may be relieved by eating or drinking. Dry mouth or altered taste may occur. Duration of symptoms of burning mouth syndrome is variable and may recur if the cause is not addressed.
Diagnosis of Burning Mouth Syndrome
Diagnosis of burning mouth syndrome requires oral symptoms as noted above and the absence of oral signs. Pain must occur for > 2 hours a day for > 3 months. There are no diagnostic tests for burning mouth syndrome. Idiopathic burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion; therefore, secondary causes should be sought.
Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome
Curative treatment for secondary burning mouth syndrome
Pain of burning mouth syndrome may be relieved with cold beverages, ice chips, chewing gum (sugarless), and by avoidance of irritants such as tobacco, spicy or acidic foods, and alcohol (in beverages and mouthwash). Tricyclic antidepressants, alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, topical capsaicin, gabapentin, vitamin supplementation (B and C), and cognitive-behavioral therapy may sometimes help.
Secondary burning mouth syndrome may be cured by appropriate treatment of the underlying cause.