The cause of medulloblastomas is not known.
Children may have frequent vomiting, trouble with balance, headaches, nausea, lethargy, or double vision.
Diagnosis usually involves an imaging test, biopsy, and a spinal tap.
The prognosis depends on whether the cancer is average risk or high risk.
Treatment is surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
(See also Overview of Brain Tumors in Children Overview of Brain Tumors in Children Brain tumors (also see brain tumors in adults) are the second most common cancer in children younger than 15 years of age (after leukemia) and the second leading cause of death from cancer.... read more .)
Medulloblastomas account for about 20% of brain and spinal cord cancers in children. These tumors tend to occur in children who are 3 to 4 years old or 8 to 10 years old, but they can occur in infants and younger children and throughout adolescence.
Medulloblastomas develop in the part of the brain that controls coordination and balance (cerebellum), which is located in the back of the brain below the cerebrum. Medulloblastomas tend to spread to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord. Occasionally, they spread to other parts of the body.
What causes medulloblastomas is unclear. They sometimes occur in people with certain hereditary disorders (such as Gorlin syndrome or Turcot syndrome).
To make the diagnosis of medulloblastoma, doctors do an MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves are used to produce highly detailed images. MRI does not use x-rays and is usually very safe... read more with a contrast agent Radiographic Contrast Agents During imaging tests, contrast agents may be used to distinguish one tissue or structure from its surroundings or to provide greater detail. Contrast agents include Radiopaque contrast agents... read more (a substance that makes the images clearer) to look for a tumor. Then they take a sample of tissue from the tumor and examine it under a microscope (biopsy). They may also do special tests of the tumor cells' chromosomes (cytogenetics or molecular genetic testing) to help with diagnosis and treatment. Usually, instead of removing just part of the tumor for the sample, the entire tumor is surgically removed and sent for examination.
To determine whether the tumor has spread, doctors do MRI of the spine and a spinal tap (lumbar puncture—see Figure: How a Spinal Tap Is Done How a Spinal Tap Is Done Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more ). The spinal tap is done to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for examination under a microscope to look for cancer cells. After surgery is done, doctors do another MRI to see whether the tumor has been completely removed. The results of these tests help doctors determine whether the tumor is average risk or high risk.
Risk is average if
Risk is high if
How well children do after treatment generally depends on whether they are categorized as having average-risk or high-risk disease.
For children older than 3 years, the chances of surviving cancer-free for 5 years is about 80% if the tumor is average risk and about 50 to 60% if it is high risk.
For children 3 years old and younger, outcome is harder to predict, but overall survival is poor. In about 40% of these children, the tumor has spread at the time of diagnosis. When children are younger, intellectual development is more likely to be affected. For example, they may have difficulty learning, remembering, and making decisions.
Certain types of medulloblastomas have a very good prognosis, with 90 to 100% overall survival.
(See also Cancer Treatment Principles Cancer Treatment Principles Treating cancer is one of the most complex aspects of medical care. It involves a team that encompasses many types of doctors working together (for example, primary care doctors, gynecologists... read more .)
Medulloblastomas are best treated by surgically removing the tumor Surgery for Cancer Surgery is a traditional form of cancer treatment. It is the most effective in eliminating most types of cancer before it has spread to lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasized). Surgery may... read more and using chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. Although an ideal drug would destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells, most drugs are not that selective. Instead, drugs... read more and radiation therapy Radiation Therapy for Cancer Radiation is a form of intense energy generated by a radioactive substance, such as cobalt, or by specialized equipment, such as an atomic particle (linear) accelerator. Radiation preferentially... read more . Some younger children may be effectively treated without radiation therapy.
Some children may be helped by a stem cell transplant that uses their own cells (called autologous stem cell transplantation Procedure Stem cell transplantation is the removal of stem cells (undifferentiated cells) from a healthy person and their injection into someone who has a serious blood disorder. (See also Overview of... read more ).
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
American Cancer Society: If Your Child Is Diagnosed With Cancer: A resource for parents and loved ones of a child who has cancer that provides information about how to cope with some of the problems and questions that come up just after a child is diagnosed