The cause of ependymomas is not known.
Some symptoms are vomiting, listlessness, and problems with balance.
Diagnosis is made by an imaging test and a biopsy.
The prognosis depends on the child's age and on how much of the cancer is removed.
Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Ependymomas are the third most common brain tumor in children Overview of Brain Tumors in Children Brain tumors (also see brain tumors in adults) are the second most common cancer in children younger than 15 years of age (after leukemia) and the second leading cause of death from cancer.... read more , accounting for 10%. The majority of children diagnosed with ependymoma are younger than 8 years of age. About one third of cases occur in children younger than 3 years of age.
Most ependymomas develop in or near the back of the brain at the bottom of the skull (called the posterior fossa). This area contains the cerebellum (which helps control coordination and balance) and the brain stem (which controls critical body functions such as breathing). Ependymomas tend to spread to the brain stem. Sometimes ependymomas develop in the spinal cord.
Symptoms of Ependymomas
The first symptoms of ependymoma often result from increased pressure within the skull. They include headaches, vomiting, and listlessness. Infants may not meet developmental milestones. They may be irritable and have no appetite. Mood or personality may change, and children may have difficulty concentrating. Children have problems with balance, coordination, and walking. Some children have seizures.
Ependymomas in the spinal cord may cause back pain, and children may have difficulty controlling urination and bowel movements.
Diagnosis of Ependymomas
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy
The diagnosis of ependymoma is based on results of an MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves are used to produce highly detailed images. MRI does not use x-rays and is usually very safe... read more . If a tumor is found, a sample is taken and sent to a laboratory for examination (biopsy).
Prognosis for Ependymomas
How well children do depends on the child's age and on how much of the tumor can be removed.
Children who survive are at risk of developing problems with their brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Treatment of Ependymomas
Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy
(See also Cancer Treatment Principles Cancer Treatment Principles Treating cancer is one of the most complex aspects of medical care. It involves a team that encompasses many types of doctors working together (for example, primary care doctors, gynecologists... read more .)
Initial therapy is surgical removal Surgery for Cancer Surgery is a traditional form of cancer treatment. It is the most effective in eliminating most types of cancer before it has spread to lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasized). Surgery may... read more of as much of the tumor as is safely possible.
Radiation therapy Radiation Therapy for Cancer Radiation is a form of intense energy generated by a radioactive substance, such as cobalt, or by specialized equipment, such as an atomic particle (linear) accelerator. Radiation preferentially... read more increases the rate of survival and is usually done after surgery.
Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells. Although an ideal drug would destroy cancer cells without harming normal cells, most drugs are not that selective. Instead, drugs... read more does not seem to increase the rate of survival, but, in some children, it may help shrink the tumor before surgery.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
American Cancer Society: If Your Child Is Diagnosed With Cancer: A resource for parents and loved ones of a child who has cancer that provides information about how to cope with some of the problems and questions that come up just after a child is diagnosed