Phenylketonuria (PKU) may occur in all ethnic groups but is relatively less common among Ashkenazi Jews and Black people. Inheritance is autosomal recessive Autosomal Recessive Genetic disorders determined by a single gene (Mendelian disorders) are easiest to analyze and the most well understood. If expression of a trait requires only one copy of a gene (one allele)... read more ; incidence is about 1/10,000 births among White people.
For information on other related amino acid disorders, see table Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism Disorders Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism Disorders Tyrosine is an amino acid that is a precursor of several neurotransmitters (eg, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine), hormones (eg, thyroxine), and melanin; deficiencies of enzymes involved... read more . See also Approach to the Patient With a Suspected Inherited Disorder of Metabolism Approach to the Patient With a Suspected Inherited Disorder of Metabolism Most inherited disorders of metabolism (inborn errors of metabolism) are rare, and therefore their diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Timely diagnosis leads to early treatment and... read more .
Pathophysiology of PKU
Excess dietary phenylalanine (ie, that not used for protein synthesis) is normally converted to tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylase; tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for this reaction. When one of several gene mutations results in deficiency or absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase, dietary phenylalanine accumulates; the brain is the main organ affected, possibly due to disturbance of myelination.
Some of the excess phenylalanine is metabolized to phenylketones, which are excreted in the urine, giving rise to the term phenylketonuria. The degree of enzyme deficiency, and hence severity of hyperphenylalaninemia, varies among patients depending on the specific mutation.
Although nearly all cases (98 to 99%) of PKU result from phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, phenylalanine can also accumulate if BH4 is not synthesized because of deficiencies of dihydrobiopterin synthase or not regenerated because of deficiencies of dihydropteridine reductase. Additionally, because BH4 is also a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin, BH4 deficiency alters synthesis of neurotransmitters, causing neurologic symptoms independently of phenylalanine accumulation.
Symptoms and Signs of PKU
Most children with phenylketonuria are normal at birth but develop symptoms and signs slowly over several months as phenylalanine accumulates. The hallmark of untreated PKU is severe intellectual disability. Children also manifest extreme hyperactivity, gait disturbance, and psychoses and often exhibit an unpleasant, mousy body odor caused by phenylacetic acid (a breakdown product of phenylalanine) in urine and sweat. Children also tend to have a lighter skin, hair, and eye color than unaffected family members, and some may develop a rash similar to infantile eczema.
Diagnosis of PKU
Routine neonatal screening
(See also the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Therapeutic Committee's 2013 diagnosis and management guidelines for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.)
In the US and many developed countries, all neonates are screened Screening Tests for Newborns Screening recommendations for newborns vary by clinical context and state requirements. Blood typing is indicated when the mother has type O or Rh-negative blood or when minor blood antigens... read more for phenylketonuria 24 to 48 hours after birth with one of several blood tests Initial testing Most inherited disorders of metabolism (inborn errors of metabolism) are rare, and therefore their diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Timely diagnosis leads to early treatment and... read more ; abnormal results are confirmed by directly measuring phenylalanine levels. In classic PKU, neonates often have phenylalanine levels > 20 mg/dL (1.2 mM/L). Those with partial deficiencies typically have levels < 8 to 10 mg/dL while on a normal diet (levels > 6 mg/dL require treatment); distinction from classic PKU requires a mutation analysis identifying mild mutations in the gene or, less often, liver phenylalanine hydroxylase activity assay showing activity between 5% and 15% of normal.
BH4 deficiency is distinguished from other forms of PKU by elevated concentrations of biopterin or neopterin in urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or all 3; genetic testing also can be used. Recognition is important, and the urine biopterin profile should be determined routinely at initial diagnosis because standard PKU treatment does not prevent neurologic damage.
Children in families with a positive family history can be diagnosed prenatally by using direct mutation studies after chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis.
Prognosis for PKU
Adequate treatment begun in the first days of life prevents the severe manifestations of the disease. However, mild cognitive deficits and mental health issues may still occur even with even with good dietary control. Treatment begun after 2 to 3 years may be effective only in controlling the extreme hyperactivity and intractable seizures.
Children born to mothers with poorly controlled PKU (ie, they have high phenylalanine levels) during pregnancy are at high risk of microcephaly and developmental deficit.
Treatment of PKU
Dietary phenylalanine restriction
Treatment of phenylketonuria is lifelong dietary phenylalanine restriction. All natural protein contains about 4% phenylalanine. Therefore dietary staples include
Low-protein natural foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, certain cereals)
Protein hydrolysates treated to remove phenylalanine
Phenylalanine-free elemental amino acid mixtures
Examples of commercially available phenylalanine-free products include PKU Anamix® (for infants), XPhe Maxamaid® (for children 1 to 8 years), XP Maxamum® (for children > 8 years); Phenex®-1 and Phenex®-2; Phenyl-Free® 1 and Phenyl-Free® 2; PhenylAde® (varieties); PKU Lophlex®LQ; and Phlexy-10® (multiple formulations). Some phenylalanine is required for growth and metabolism; this requirement is met by measured quantities of natural protein from milk or low-protein foods.
Frequent monitoring of plasma phenylalanine levels is required; recommended targets for all children are between 2 mg/dL and 6 mg/dL (120 to 360 micromol/L). Dietary planning and management need to be initiated in women of childbearing age before pregnancy to ensure a good outcome for the child. Tyrosine supplementation is increasingly used because it is an essential amino acid in patients with PKU. In addition, all patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency should be given a trial of sapropterin to determine benefit.
For those with BH4 deficiency, treatment also includes tetrahydrobiopterin 1 to 5 mg/kg orally 3 times a day; levodopa, carbidopa, and 5-OH tryptophan; and folinic acid 10 to 20 mg orally once a day in cases of dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. However, treatment goals and approach are the same as those for PKU.
PKU is caused by one of several gene mutations that result in deficiency or absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase so that dietary phenylalanine accumulates; the brain is the main organ affected, possibly because of disturbance of myelination.
PKU causes a clinical syndrome of intellectual disability with cognitive and behavioral abnormalities; if untreated, the intellectual disability is severe.
In the US and many developed countries, all neonates are screened for phenylketonuria 24 to 48 hours after birth with one of several blood tests; abnormal results are confirmed by directly measuring phenylalanine levels.
Treatment is lifelong dietary phenylalanine restriction; adequate treatment begun in the first days of life prevents many manifestations of the disease.
Although prognosis is excellent with treatment, frequent monitoring of plasma phenylalanine levels is required; recommended targets are between 2 mg/dL and 6 mg/dL (120 to 360 micromol/L) for all children.
The following are English-language resources that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics Therapeutic Committee: Diagnosis and management guidelines for phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency (2013)
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® (OMIM®) database: Complete gene, molecular, and chromosomal location information