MSD Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Myelodysplasia and Iron-Transport Deficiency Anemia

By

Evan M. Braunstein

, MD, PhD, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Last full review/revision Sep 2021
Click here for Patient Education

Anemia in myelodysplastic syndrome

Bone marrow examination shows decreased erythroid activity, megaloblastoid and dysplastic changes, and, sometimes, increased numbers of ringed sideroblasts.

Treatment is directed at the malignancy, and growth factors may be used.

Iron-transport deficiency anemia

Iron-transport deficiency anemia (atransferrinemia) is exceedingly rare. It occurs when iron cannot move from storage sites (eg, mucosal cells, liver) to the erythropoietic precursors. One well-known form is iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA), caused by germline mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, which encodes a transmembrane protein that regulates production of hepcidin, a protein involved in iron absorption.

Patients have a microcytic anemia with very low transferrin saturation and are refractory to oral iron. Because hepcidin regulation is defective, hepcidin levels are inappropriately elevated despite iron deficiency.

Treatment of IRIDA is usually with IV iron preparations, although only partial responses typically occur. Prolonged courses of oral iron together with vitamin C may also be attempted.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read
Test your knowledge
Management of Adverse Effects of Cancer Therapy
Nausea and vomiting are common adverse effects of either the cancer itself or of the treatment for cancer. Several drugs are available to administer prior to chemotherapy for anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Of these drugs, which of the following is the most effective yet the most expensive? 
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Become a pro at using our website 

Also of Interest

Become a pro at using our website 
TOP