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Autonomic Neuropathies

By

Phillip Low

, MD, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic

Last full review/revision Apr 2020| Content last modified Apr 2020
Click here for the Professional Version

Autonomic neuropathies are disorders affecting the peripheral nerves that automatically (without conscious effort) regulate body processes (autonomic nerves).

  • Causes include diabetes, amyloidosis, autoimmune disorders, cancer, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain drugs.

  • People may feel light-headed when they stand and have urination problems, constipation, and vomiting, and men may have erectile dysfunction.

  • Doctors do a physical examination and various tests to check for autonomic malfunction and possible causes.

  • The cause is corrected or treated if possible.

The nervous system Overview of the Nervous System The nervous system has two distinct parts: the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). The basic... read more has central and peripheral parts. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that connect the body’s tissues with the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nerves include the following:

Autonomic neuropathies are a type of peripheral neuropathy Overview of the Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system refers to the parts of the nervous system that are outside the central nervous system, that is, those outside the brain and spinal cord. Thus, the peripheral nervous... read more , a disorder in which peripheral nerves are damaged throughout the body. In autonomic neuropathies, there is much more damage to the autonomic nerves than to the somatic nerves.

Causes of Autonomic Neuropathies

Common causes of autonomic neuropathies include

Some of the antibodies produced by the immune system attack the surface of a nerve fiber or the tissues that wrap around the fiber and enable it to conduct impulses quickly and accurately. (These tissues are called the myelin sheath The peripheral nervous system consists of more than 100 billion nerve cells (neurons) that run throughout the body like strings, making connections with the brain, other parts of the body, and... read more .)

Rarely, antibodies produced by the immune system attack acetylcholine receptors (the part of nerve cells that enables them to respond to acetylcholine). Acetylcholine is one of the chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) used to communicate within the autonomic nervous system.

Other causes of autonomic neuropathies include cancer, drugs, excessive alcohol consumption, and toxins.

Symptoms of Autonomic Neuropathies

A common symptom of autonomic neuropathies is

As a result, the person feels light-headed or as if about to faint.

When somatic nerves are also damaged, people may lose sensation or feel a tingling (pins-and-needles) sensation in the hands and feet, or muscles may become weak.

Diagnosis of Autonomic Neuropathies

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • Sometimes blood tests

Doctors may suspect an autonomic disorder based on symptoms. A physical examination and certain tests Diagnosis The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body processes, such as blood pressure and the rate of breathing. This system works automatically (autonomously), without a person’s conscious... read more Diagnosis are done to check for signs of autonomic disorders and possible causes (such as diabetes or amyloidosis).

Blood tests are sometimes done to check for antibodies to acetylcholine receptors, which indicate an autoimmune reaction. Sometimes people with an autonomic neuropathy due to an autoimmune reaction have these antibodies.

Treatment of Autonomic Neuropathies

  • Treatment of the cause if identified

  • Sometimes immunosuppressants

  • For severe symptoms, sometimes immune globulin or plasma exchange

The cause of the autonomic disorder, if identified, is treated. Neuropathies due to an autoimmune reaction are sometimes treated with drugs that suppress the immune system (immunosuppressants) and lessen the reaction, such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or prednisone.

If symptoms are severe, immune globulin (a solution containing many different antibodies obtained from the blood of people with a normal immune system) may be given intravenously, or plasma exchange Plateletpheresis (platelet donation) In addition to normal blood donation and transfusion, special procedures are sometimes used. In plateletpheresis, a donor gives only platelets rather than whole blood. Whole blood is drawn from... read more may be done. In plasma exchange, blood is withdrawn, filtered to remove abnormal antibodies, then returned to the person.

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Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for each of the following functions EXCEPT:
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