Dizziness or Light-Headedness When Standing Up

ByAndrea D. Thompson, MD, PhD, University of Michigan;
Michael J. Shea, MD, Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Reviewed/Revised Aug 2022 | Modified Sep 2022

In some people, particularly older people, blood pressure drops excessively when they sit or stand up (a condition called orthostatic or postural hypotension). Symptoms of faintness, light-headedness, dizziness, confusion, or blurred vision occur within seconds to a few minutes of standing (particularly after lying in bed or sitting for a long time) and resolve rapidly when the person lies down. However, some people fall, faint, or very rarely have a brief seizure. Symptoms are often more common and worse after people exercise, have consumed alcohol and/or a heavy meal, or are deficient in fluids (dehydration).

Some younger people experience similar symptoms upon standing but without having a drop in blood pressure. Often, their heart rate increases (tachycardia) more than normal upon standing, so this condition is called postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). The reason why such people feel dizzy despite having normal blood pressure is not clear.


Dizziness or light-headedness when standing up occurs as a result of abnormal blood pressure regulation. Normally, when people stand, gravity causes blood to pool in the veins of the legs and trunk. This pooling lowers the blood pressure and the amount of blood the heart pumps to the brain. Low blood flow to the brain causes the dizziness and other symptoms. To compensate, the nervous system quickly increases the heart rate and constricts blood vessels, which rapidly returns blood pressure to normal before symptoms can develop. The part of the nervous system responsible for this compensation is the autonomic nervous system.

Many disorders can cause problems with blood pressure regulation and lead to dizziness when standing up. Categories of causes include

  • Malfunction of the autonomic nervous system due to disorders or drugs

  • Decreased ability of the heart to pump blood

  • Decreased blood volume (hypovolemia)

  • Faulty hormonal responses

Causes differ depending on whether symptoms are new or have been present for some time.

Common causes

The most common causes of new dizziness when standing up include

  • Decreased blood volume (as may result from dehydration or blood loss)

  • Drugs

  • Prolonged bed rest

  • An underactive adrenal gland (adrenal insufficiency)

The most common causes of dizziness when standing up that has been present for a long time (chronic) include

  • Age-related changes in blood pressure regulation

  • Drugs

  • Malfunction of the autonomic nervous system

Evaluation of Dizziness or Light-headedness When Standing Up

People who become dizzy or light-headed when standing up often recover quickly when they sit down and then slowly stand again. However, it is usually important to determine what is causing the dizziness. The following information can help people decide when to see a doctor and help them know what to expect during the evaluation.

Warning signs

In people who become dizzy or light-headed when standing up, certain symptoms and characteristics are cause for concern. They include

  • Blood in the stool or black, tarry stool

  • Nervous system symptoms such as difficulty walking and/or poor coordination or balance

  • Falling or fainting (passing out)

  • Chest pain or discomfort

When to see a doctor

People who have warning signs should seek emergency department care right away. Other people who have frequent or ongoing episodes of dizziness upon standing should see a doctor when practical. Typically a delay of a week or so is not harmful. People who have only an occasional episode of dizziness upon standing should call their doctor. The doctor will decide whether and how quickly to see the person depending on the other symptoms and medical history.

What the doctor does

The doctor first asks questions about the person's symptoms and medical history. Doctors then do a physical examination. What they find during the history and physical examination often suggests a cause of the dizziness and the tests that may need to be done.

Doctors ask

  • How long the dizziness has been occurring

  • Whether the person has fainted or fallen during an episode of dizziness

  • Whether the person has experienced conditions that are known to cause dizziness (such as bed rest or fluid loss)

  • Whether the person has a disorder (such as diabetes, Parkinson disease, or a cancer) that may cause dizziness

  • Whether the person is taking a drug (for example, an antihypertensive) that may cause dizziness

The doctor then does a physical examination. The person lies down for 5 minutes, and then the doctor measures the blood pressure and heart rate. Blood pressure and heart rate are measured again after the person stands or sits up for 1 minute and again after standing or sitting for 3 minutes. The doctor may do a digital rectal examination to see whether the person might have some bleeding in the digestive tract. A neurologic examination to test strength, sensation, reflexes, balance, and gait is important.

The most common causes of sudden dizziness—drugs, bed rest, and decreased blood volume—are usually obvious. In people with long-term symptoms, findings such as movement problems may indicate Parkinson disease. Numbness, tingling, or weakness may indicate a nervous system disorder.



Unless the cause is obvious (for example, bed rest), testing is usually needed. The doctor usually does electrocardiography (ECG), a complete blood count, and other blood tests (for example, measuring levels of electrolytes). Other tests are done based on what doctors find during the examination, especially if the person's symptoms suggest a heart or nerve problem.

If doctors suspect a drug is causing the dizziness, they may ask the person to stop taking the drug and observe whether the dizziness also stops, thus confirming the cause.

Tilt table testing

Treatment of Dizziness or Light-headedness When Standing Up

Any causes are treated when possible, including changing or stopping any causative drugs. However, many causes cannot be cured, and people must take measures to decrease their symptoms. Measures include lifestyle changes and drugs.

Essentials for Older People

Dizziness or light-headedness when standing occurs in about 20% of older people. It is more common among people with coexisting disorders, especially high blood pressure, and among residents of long-term care facilities. Many falls may result from dizziness when standing. Older people should avoid prolonged standing.

The increased incidence in older people is due to decreases in the responsiveness of the receptors that manage blood pressure plus increases in arterial wall stiffness, which make it more difficult for arteries to move more blood to increase blood pressure. Decreases in receptor responsiveness delay the normal heart and blood vessel responses to standing. Paradoxically, high blood pressure, which is more common among older people, may contribute to poor receptor sensitivity, increasing vulnerability to dizziness when standing.

Key Points

  • Dizziness or light-headedness when standing typically involves a decrease in body fluid volume or autonomic nervous system dysfunction.

  • Aging often causes some degree of autonomic nervous system dysfunction, but doctors examine all affected people to ensure that no nervous system disorders are present.

  • Tilt table testing is a common test of autonomic function.

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