MSD Manual

Please confirm that you are not located inside the Russian Federation

honeypot link

Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)

(Atopic Eczema; Infantile Eczema; Neurodermatitis; Endogenous Eczema)


Thomas M. Ruenger

, MD, PhD, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany

Reviewed/Revised Jan 2023
Topic Resources

Atopic dermatitis (commonly referred to as eczema) is chronic, itchy inflammation of the upper layers of the skin that often develops in people who have hay fever or asthma and in people who have family members with these conditions.

  • Atopic dermatitis is very common, particularly in high-income countries and among people who have a tendency to develop allergies.

  • Infants tend to develop red, oozing, crusted rashes on the face, scalp, hands, arms, feet, or legs.

  • Older children and adults tend to develop one or a few spots, usually on the hands, upper arms, in front of the elbows, or behind the knees.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on the appearance of the rash and the person's personal and family medical histories.

  • Treatment includes practicing general skin care, applying corticosteroids to the skin, and sometimes using other treatments such as phototherapy or immune system‒modulating medications.

Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders, particularly in children living in urban areas or high-income countries. Each year, up to about 10% of adults and 20% of children are diagnosed with atopic dermatitis.

Most people develop the disorder before age 5, and many people develop it before age 1. Atopic dermatitis that develops during childhood frequently goes away or lessens greatly by adulthood. Atopic dermatitis may begin during late adulthood or even later in life.

Atopic dermatitis is caused by a genetic defect of the skin barrier that predisposes the skin to inflammation. It often runs in families, and many people or their family members who have atopic dermatitis also have asthma Asthma Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow—usually reversibly—in response to certain stimuli. Coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath that occur in response to specific triggers are... read more Asthma , hay fever Seasonal Allergies Seasonal allergies result from exposure to airborne substances (such as pollens) that appear only during certain times of the year. Seasonal allergies cause itchy skin, a runny nose, sneezing... read more Seasonal Allergies , or both. Atopic dermatitis is not an allergy to a particular substance, but having atopic dermatitis increases the likelihood of also developing asthma and hay fever (what doctors call an atopic triad).

Atopic dermatitis is not contagious.

Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis usually begins in infancy, as early as 3 months of age.

In the early (acute) phase, red, oozing, and crusted areas develop, and sometimes blisters. Itching is often intense.

In the chronic (later) phase, scratching and rubbing create areas that appear dry and thickened (lichenified).

Examples of Atopic Dermatitis

In infants, rashes on the face spread to the neck, eyelids, scalp, hands, arms, feet, and legs. Large areas of the body may be affected.

In older children and adults, a rash often occurs (and recurs) in only one or a few spots, especially on the front of the neck, the inner folds of the elbows, and behind the knees.

Although the color, intensity, and location of the rash vary, the rash always itches. In older children and adults, intense itching is the main symptom. The itching often leads to uncontrollable scratching, triggering a cycle of itching-scratching-itching that makes the problem worse. Continuous scratching causes the skin to thicken (lichenification).

Itching worsens with dry air, irritation, and emotional stress.

Common environmental triggers of symptoms include

  • Excessive bathing or washing

  • Harsh soaps

  • Presence of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus on the skin

  • Sweating

  • Rough fabrics and wool

Complications of atopic dermatitis

Scratching and rubbing can also tear the skin, leaving an opening for bacteria to enter and cause infections of the skin, tissues below the skin, and nearby lymph nodes. Widespread inflammation and scaling of the skin also can develop.

In people with atopic dermatitis, infection with the herpes simplex virus Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections Herpes simplex virus infection causes recurring episodes of small, painful, fluid-filled blisters on the skin, mouth, lips (cold sores), eyes, or genitals. This very contagious viral infection... read more Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections , which in other people usually affects a small area with tiny, slightly painful blisters, may cause a serious illness with widespread dermatitis, blistering, and high fever (eczema herpeticum).

People who have atopic dermatitis also have a higher risk of allergic contact reactions Allergic contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis is skin inflammation caused by direct contact with a particular substance. The rash may be itchy, is confined to a specific area, and often has clearly defined boundaries... read more Allergic contact dermatitis . These contact reactions are triggered when the skin comes in to contact with an allergen, which is a substance that sensitizes the skin. For example, contact allergies to nickel, the most common contact allergen, are twice as common among people who have atopic dermatitis than among people who do not have atopic dermatitis.

Diagnosis of Atopic Dermatitis

  • The appearance of the rash and the person's family history

A doctor makes the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis based on the typical appearance of the rash and often on whether people or other members of their family have allergies, hay fever, or asthma.

Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis

Avoiding excessive washing or bathing, reducing the use of soap, using lukewarm water when washing or bathing, and applying moisturizers very often can prevent or at least reduce flare-ups.

Identifying and avoiding triggers that worsen the condition can help. Triggers include sweat, stress, soaps, and detergents.

Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

  • Measures to relieve itching

  • Skin care

  • Corticosteroids

  • Immune system‒modulating medications

  • Crisaborole

  • Janus kinase inhibitors

  • Phototherapy

  • Biologic agents

  • Sometimes antibiotics or antivirals

No cure exists, but itching can be relieved with medications applied to the skin (topical medications) or medications taken by mouth (oral medications).

Doctors educate people about good skin care practices and the importance of breaking the itch–scratch cycle.

General care and itch relief

Certain skin care measures are helpful:

  • Using soap substitutes instead of regular soap

  • Applying moisturizers (ointments or creams) immediately after bathing, while the skin is damp

  • Reducing the frequency of bathing (showers/baths should be limited to once a day, and sponge baths can be substituted to decrease the number of days with full baths)

  • Limiting the temperature of bathing water to lukewarm

  • Blotting or patting the skin dry after bathing rather than rubbing

  • Taking baths with diluted bleach (for people who have certain skin infections)

Antihistamines, such as hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine, can help relieve itching. These medications are preferably taken at bedtime to avoid sleepiness during the day.

People should also try to reduce their emotional stress.


Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment.

Specific treatments include applying a corticosteroid ointment or cream. To limit the use of corticosteroids in people being treated for long periods (because long-term use can lead to thinning of the skin, stretch marks, or acne-like bumps), doctors sometimes replace the corticosteroids with noncorticosteroid treatments for eczema, for a week or more at a time.

Other treatments

The immune system‒modulating medications tacrolimus and pimecrolimus also are helpful and can limit the need for long-term corticosteroid use. These medications are usually given as ointments or creams.

Crisaborole ointment can be used to reduce itching, swelling, and redness.

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors interfere with the communication between cells that coordinate inflammation by inhibiting the enzyme JAK. Ruxolitinib cream is a JAK inhibitor that can be used to treat mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in people 12 years of age or older who do not have a weakened or impaired immune system. New JAK inhibitors include upadacitinib and abrocitinib. These two JAK inhibitors are taken by mouth.

Phototherapy Phototherapy Psoriasis is a chronic, recurring disease that causes one or more raised, red patches that have silvery scales and a distinct border between the patch and normal skin. A problem with the immune... read more Phototherapy (exposure to ultraviolet light) may help, especially therapy using narrowband ultraviolet B light. If office-based phototherapy is not available or too inconvenient, home phototherapy is a good alternative. Several home phototherapy devices have programmable features that allow specialists to control the number of treatments and supervise a person's use of the device. Natural sun exposure is an alternative when phototherapy is not available.

Immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate, methotrexate, and azathioprine, are taken by mouth. They are given to people who have widespread, hard-to-treat, or disabling atopic dermatitis that does not get better with topical therapy and phototherapy.

Dupilumab and tralokinumab-ldrm are biologic agents Generic Biologic Drugs Medications are drugs used therapeutically (that is, to treat medical conditions). Traditional drugs, such as antibiotics and blood pressure drugs, are called small-molecule agents because the... read more that are injected. These agents are given to people whose atopic dermatitis is not adequately controlled with other treatments.

Antibiotics may be given to people who have skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria. Antibiotic ointments may be applied directly to the skin or pills may be taken by mouth.

People who have the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in their nose may be given the antibiotic mupirocin to apply inside their nostrils, thus preventing skin infection.

Parents should cut their children's fingernails short to minimize scratching and thus reduce the risk of infection. If a skin infection does occur, antibiotics may be given by mouth, applied to the skin, or both.

Eczema herpeticum is treated with antivirals, such as acyclovir or valacyclovir. These medications are taken by mouth but can also be given by infusion.

Prognosis for Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis often lessens by the time children are 5 years of age. However, flare-ups are common throughout adolescence and into adulthood.

Girls and people who developed atopic dermatitis at an early age, have a severe case, have a family history, and have rhinitis or asthma are more likely to have atopic dermatitis for a long time. Even in these people, however, atopic dermatitis frequently resolves or lessens significantly by adulthood.

Because the symptoms of atopic dermatitis are visible and sometimes disabling, children may develop long-term emotional problems as they face the challenge of living with the disorder during their developmental years.

quiz link

Test your knowledge

Take a Quiz!