What is a heart attack?
A heart attack is when blood flow to part of your heart is suddenly blocked and some of your heart muscle dies.
Go to an emergency department and chew on an aspirin tablet if you think you're having a heart attack
You may have chest pressure, shortness of breath, and a tired feeling if you're having a heart problem
Sometimes a heart attack may cause mild symptoms or none at all (silent heart attack)
Doctors do blood tests and ECG/EKG (electrocardiography) Electrocardiography Electrocardiography is a test that measures your heart’s electrical activity. It's quick, painless, and harmless. The results of that test are shown in an electrocardiogram. It looks like a... read more if you have symptoms of a heart attack
Doctors will give you medicine and do procedures to try to get more blood to the affected area of your heart
What causes a heart attack?
The heart is a muscle that pumps blood. Like all muscles, the heart needs a steady supply of blood to work. Blood that pumps through the heart doesn't feed the heart muscle. Instead, the heart muscle is fed by its own arteries. These arteries are called coronary arteries.
Most heart attacks happen when one of your coronary arteries is suddenly blocked by a blood clot.
Coronary artery blood clots usually happen when you have atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis In people with atherosclerosis, patchy deposits of fatty material (atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques) develop in the walls of medium-sized and large arteries, leading to reduced or blocked... read more :
Atherosclerosis is commonly known as hardening of the arteries
Atherosclerosis is the slow build-up of cholesterol and other fatty material in your arteries
This build-up is called an atheroma or plaque
The plaque may rupture suddenly, causing a blood clot that blocks the artery
The blocked artery doesn't let blood get through to part of your heart muscle. If blood flow is cut off for more than a few minutes, that part of your heart muscle dies. The dead muscle can't pump blood, so your heart is weaker. Your heart's rhythm may also be affected, causing it to beat too fast or too slow. Sometimes your heart stops completely (cardiac arrest) and you die.
If part of your heart muscle dies, it doesn't come back. The dead muscle is replaced by scar tissue.
What are the symptoms of a heart attack?
Symptoms of a heart attack are similar to angina Angina Angina is pain, discomfort, or pressure in your chest that happens when your heart isn't getting enough oxygen. The lack of oxygen is caused by a narrow or blocked artery to your heart ( coronary... read more , but the pain usually hurts more, lasts longer, and doesn't feel better with rest.
You may have pain in the middle of your chest
The pain may spread to your back, jaw, or left arm
Less often, the pain spreads to the right arm
The pain may occur in one or more of these places and not in the chest at all
You may feel sweaty and nervous
Your lips, hands, or feet may turn slightly blue
How can doctors tell if I have a heart attack?
Doctors do tests, such as:
Blood tests to check for certain substances that show heart problems
How do doctors treat heart attacks?
You'll be admitted to the hospital. Doctors will try to:
Open up the blocked artery to save as much of your heart muscle as possible
Treat the problem that caused your heart attack
They will also:
Control your heart rhythm and blood pressure
Give you medicines to prevent blood clots
Give you medicines to lower the work load on your heart
Open blocked arteries
Depending on where your coronary artery is blocked, doctors may:
Give you medicine by vein to dissolve blood clots
Do bypass surgery
Clot-dissolving medicine given in your vein (IV) can open up a blocked coronary artery. However, the medicine works only if you get it within a few hours after your heart attack began. Also, the clot-dissolving medicine isn't for everyone. It may not be safe for people who recently had a stroke or major surgery, or people whose blood pressure is very high.
The doctor puts a small, flexible tube (catheter) into an artery in your upper leg (groin) or in your wrist
The catheter is pushed up the artery to your heart and then into one of your coronary arteries
A small balloon on the tip of the catheter is inflated
The balloon pushes the blockage open
Then the doctor slips a wire mesh tube (stent) off the end of the catheter into the blocked area
The wire mesh tube helps hold the blocked area open
During bypass surgery:
Doctors take a piece of healthy artery or vein from another part of your body
They sew one end of that piece of artery or vein to your aorta (the major artery that takes blood from your heart to the rest of your body)
They sew the other end to your blocked artery past the point of the blockage
Your blood then flows through this new route, bypassing the blockage
Treat the cause of your heart attack
To treat the problem that caused your heart attack, doctors usually give you:
They will also have you change any behaviors that are hurting your heart, such as smoking, not exercising, and eating a poor diet.
How can I prevent a heart attack?
Change behaviors that may hurt your heart
Eat healthy foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables and other high-fiber foods
Eat less fat from meats, dairy, and processed foods (such as frozen pizza or microwaveable dinners)—talk to your doctor about how much and which types of fat you should eat
Lose weight if you need to
Stay active by using weights or walking
Stop smoking, drinking alcohol, or using illicit drugs—these can be hard to stop, so talk to your doctor or a counselor about how to get help
Take your medicines correctly
Remember to take any medicines prescribed by your doctor, such as for high cholesterol High Cholesterol Cholesterol is a type of fat. Fats are also called lipids. Cholesterol is a type of lipid—an essential element contained in all human cells. However, excess lipids and other fatty substances... read more , high blood pressure High Blood Pressure Each heart beat pushes blood through your arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your body. Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in your arteries. Without... read more , or diabetes Diabetes Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high. You get diabetes if your body's normal way of controlling blood sugar isn't working right. There are 2 types of... read more
If you have had a heart attack, ask your doctor about taking a low dose of aspirin every day to help prevent a second heart attack