Certain infections and other conditions that inflame the pericardium cause pericarditis.
Fever and chest pain, which is sharp and varies with position and movement and occasionally may feel like a heart attack, are common symptoms.
Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms and occasionally by hearing a tell-tale sound when listening to the heartbeat with a stethoscope.
People are often hospitalized and given drugs to reduce pain and inflammation.
(See also Overview of Pericardial Disease Overview of Pericardial Disease Pericardial disease affects the pericardium, which is the flexible two-layered sac that envelops the heart. The pericardium helps keep the heart in position, helps prevent the heart from overfilling... read more and Chronic Pericarditis Chronic Pericarditis Chronic pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the flexible two-layered sac that envelops the heart) that begins gradually, is long-lasting, and results in fluid accumulation in the... read more .)
Sometimes the inflammation can cause excess fluid to enter the pericardial space (pericardial effusion). Sometimes, when pericarditis is due to an injury, cancer, or heart surgery, the fluid is blood.
Causes of Acute Pericarditis
Causes of acute pericarditis include
Infection (viral, bacterial, parasitic, or fungal and, in people with AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is transmitted... read more , tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis is a chronic contagious infection caused by the airborne bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually affects the lungs, but almost any organ can be involved. Tuberculosis... read more , or aspergillosis Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an infection, usually of the lungs, caused by the fungus Aspergillus. A ball of fungus fibers, blood clots, and white blood cells may form in the lungs or sinuses. People... read more )
Heart surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome)
Cancer (such as leukemia Overview of Leukemia Leukemias are cancers of white blood cells or of cells that develop into white blood cells. White blood cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Sometimes the development goes awry... read more , breast cancer Breast Cancer Breast cancer occurs when cells in the breast become abnormal and divide uncontrollably. Breast cancer usually starts in the glands that produce milk (lobules) or the tubes (ducts) that carry... read more , or lung cancer Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. About 85% of cases are related to cigarette smoking. One common symptom is a persistent cough or a change in the character... read more , or, in people with AIDS, Kaposi sarcoma Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is a skin cancer that causes multiple flat pink, red, or purple patches or bumps on the skin. It is caused by human herpesvirus type 8 infection. One or a few spots may appear... read more )
Drugs, including warfarin and heparin (anticoagulants), penicillin, procainamide (a drug used to treat abnormal heart rhythms), and phenytoin (an antiseizure drug)
Unknown (idiopathic or nonspecific pericarditis)
In people who have AIDS, a number of infections, including tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis is a chronic contagious infection caused by the airborne bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually affects the lungs, but almost any organ can be involved. Tuberculosis... read more and aspergillosis Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is an infection, usually of the lungs, caused by the fungus Aspergillus. A ball of fungus fibers, blood clots, and white blood cells may form in the lungs or sinuses. People... read more , may result in pericarditis. Pericarditis due to tuberculosis (tuberculous pericarditis) accounts for less than 5% of cases of acute pericarditis in the United States but accounts for the majority of cases in some areas of India and Africa. SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness that can be severe and is caused by the coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. Symptoms of COVID-19 vary significantly. Two types of tests can be used to diagnose... read more infection infrequently causes pericarditis.
After a heart attack, acute pericarditis develops during the first day or two in 10 to 15% of people and after about 10 days to 2 months in 1 to 3% (subacute pericarditis). Subacute pericarditis is caused by the same disorders that cause acute pericarditis.
Symptoms of Acute Pericarditis
Usually acute pericarditis causes sharp chest pain, which often extends to the left shoulder and sometimes down the left arm. The pain may be similar to that of a heart attack, except that it tends to be made worse by lying down, swallowing food, coughing, or even deep breathing. The accumulating fluid or blood in the pericardial space puts pressure on the heart, interfering with its ability to pump blood. If the pressure is too high, cardiac tamponade Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart by blood or fluid that accumulates in the two-layered sac around the heart (pericardium). This disorder interferes with the heart's ability to pump... read more —a potentially fatal condition—may occur. Sometimes acute pericarditis does not cause any symptoms.
Pericarditis due to tuberculosis begins insidiously, sometimes without obvious symptoms of infection. It may cause fever and symptoms of heart failure, such as weakness, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Cardiac tamponade may occur.
Acute pericarditis due to a viral infection is usually painful but short-lived and has no lasting effects.
When acute pericarditis develops in the first day or two after a heart attack Acute Coronary Syndromes (Heart Attack; Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina) Acute coronary syndromes result from a sudden blockage in a coronary artery. This blockage causes unstable angina or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the location and amount... read more , symptoms of pericarditis are seldom noticed because symptoms of the heart attack are the main concern.
Pericarditis that develops about 10 days to 2 months after a heart attack is usually accompanied by postmyocardial infarction syndrome Pericarditis The heart muscle needs a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood. The coronary arteries, which branch off the aorta just after it leaves the heart, deliver this blood. An acute coronary syndrome... read more (Dressler syndrome), which includes fever, pericardial effusion (extra fluid in the pericardial space), pleuritic pain (pain due to inflammation of the pleura, which are the membranes covering the lungs), pleural effusion (fluid between the two layers of the pleura), and joint pain.
Symptoms of acute pericarditis often go away on their own but come back in up to 30% of people.
In 15 to 25 percent of people with idiopathic pericarditis, symptoms recur on and off for months or years (called recurrent pericarditis).
Diagnosis of Acute Pericarditis
Tests to identify the cause
Doctors can usually diagnose acute pericarditis based on the person's description of the pain and the sounds heard by listening through a stethoscope placed on the person's chest. Pericarditis can cause a crunching sound similar to the creaking of a leather shoe or a scratchy sound similar to the rustling of dry leaves (pericardial rub). Doctors can often diagnose pericarditis a few hours to a few days after a heart attack based on hearing these sounds.
Usually, doctors also do electrocardiography Electrocardiography Electrocardiography (ECG) is a quick, simple, painless procedure in which the heart’s electrical impulses are amplified and recorded. This record, the electrocardiogram (also known as an ECG)... read more (ECG), which often shows abnormalities caused by the pericarditis. Then doctors look for signs of pericardial effusion by doing a chest x-ray and echocardiography Echocardiography and Other Ultrasound Procedures Ultrasonography uses high-frequency (ultrasound) waves bounced off internal structures to produce a moving image. It uses no x-rays. Ultrasonography of the heart (echocardiography) is one of... read more (a procedure that uses ultrasound waves to produce an image of the heart).
Tests for the cause of pericarditis
Sometimes the cause of pericarditis is obvious, such as a recent heart attack. Other times the cause may not be clear.
Echocardiography may suggest the cause—for example, the image shown on the echocardiogram or chest x-ray may suggest cancer.
Blood tests can detect some of the other conditions that cause pericarditis—for example, leukemia Overview of Leukemia Leukemias are cancers of white blood cells or of cells that develop into white blood cells. White blood cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Sometimes the development goes awry... read more , infections, rheumatic fever Rheumatic Fever Rheumatic fever is inflammation of the joints, heart, skin, and nervous system, resulting from a complication of untreated streptococcal infection of the throat. This condition is a reaction... read more , and increased levels of urea in the blood resulting from kidney failure.
If the cause of pericarditis remains unknown, doctors may withdraw a sample of the pericardial fluid and/or pericardial tissue using a needle inserted through the chest wall (pericardiocentesis). The fluid and tissue are sent to the laboratory for testing.
Prognosis of Acute Pericarditis
The prognosis for people who have pericarditis depends on the cause. When pericarditis is caused by a virus or when the cause is not apparent, recovery usually takes 1 to 3 weeks. Complications or recurrences can slow recovery. People with cancer that has invaded the pericardium rarely survive beyond 12 to 18 months.
Treatment of Acute Pericarditis
Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or colchicine
Treatment of the underlying disorder, such as cancer
Infrequently, surgical treatment such as pericardiotomy
Regardless of the cause, doctors sometimes hospitalize people with pericarditis, particularly people with high-risk features (fever, subacute onset, use of immunosuppressive drugs, recent trauma, oral anticoagulant therapy, failure to improve with use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Pain relievers (analgesics) are the main drugs used to treat pain. Doctors choose a pain reliever based on the type and duration of pain and on the drug's likely benefits and risks. Most pain... read more [NSAIDs], myopericarditis [pericarditis involving the heart muscle as well as the pericardium] and moderate or large pericardial effusions). The person is monitored for complications, particularly cardiac tamponade.
Acute pericarditis usually responds to colchicine or NSAIDs (such as aspirin and ibuprofen) taken by mouth. Once pain and signs of inflammation have been relieved, the drugs are gradually reduced. Colchicine also decreases the chance of pericarditis returning later. Intense pain may require an opioid, such as morphine. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, does not directly reduce pain but relieves it by reducing inflammation. However, prednisone is not used for everyone because it can make a viral infection (which people may also have) more severe. Prednisone also increases the chance that pericarditis will return later.
Treating the underlying disorder
Further treatment of acute pericarditis varies, depending on the cause. For people who have kidney failure, increasing the frequency of dialysis usually results in improvement.
Drugs that may cause pericarditis are stopped whenever possible.
People who have cancer may respond to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
If pericarditis that is caused by a virus, an injury, or an unidentified disorder recurs, aspirin or ibuprofen, sometimes along with colchicine, may provide relief. If these drugs do not help, doctors may give corticosteroids (as long as the cause was not an infection). The corticosteroids are sometimes injected into the pericardial space. If drug treatment is ineffective, doctors may remove the pericardium surgically.
If a bacterial infection is the cause, treatment consists of antibiotics and surgical drainage of pus from the pericardium.
Fluid may be drained from the pericardium by inserting a thin catheter into the pericardial space (pericardiocentesis).
Sometimes a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted through the skin. The balloon is then inflated to create a hole (window) in the pericardium. This procedure, called percutaneous balloon pericardiotomy, is usually done as an alternative to surgery when effusions are due to cancer or recur.
Alternatively, a small incision is made below the breast bone, and a piece of the pericardium is removed. Then a tube is inserted into the pericardial space. This procedure, called a subxiphoid pericardiotomy, is often done when effusions are due to bacterial infections. Both procedures require a local anesthetic, can be done at the person's bedside, allow fluid to drain continuously, and are effective.