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MSD Manual

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Introduction to Death and Dying


Elizabeth L. Cobbs

, MD, George Washington University;

Karen Blackstone

, MD, George Washington University;

Joanne Lynn

, MD, MA, MS, Altarum Institute

Last full review/revision Oct 2019| Content last modified Oct 2019
Click here for the Professional Version

Death is an intrinsic part of life, and talking about the likely outcomes of illness, including death and dying, is an important part of health care. Doctors and patients vary in the language they use and in their comfort level regarding such discussions.

People also vary in their comfort level regarding the amount of information and involvement in decision making that they want. Seriously ill people and their loved ones should generally try to understand the likely future course of their illness as well as the options for living with their particular disabilities and family situation.

People should make any preferences about treatment and family support known. Such preferences are known as advance directives. People who do not talk with their families and health care providers about their preferences for care near the end of their life may receive treatments (such as chemotherapy or surgery) or end up living in situations (such as a hospital or nursing home) they would not have wanted.

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