Your stomach makes a lot of acid, which helps digest food. Normally, the lining of your stomach and intestines has defenses against the acid. If something interferes with those defenses, the acid can cause damage.
What is a peptic ulcer?
"Peptic" has to do with digestion related to pepsin and acid. An ulcer is a sore. So a peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of your stomach or the first part of your small intestine (an area called the duodenum). Peptic ulcers in your stomach are called gastric ulcers. Ulcers in the first part of the small intestine are called duodenal ulcers.
Infection with bacteria called Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori Infection Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation of your stomach lining and ulcers (sores) in your stomach or intestine. It's often shortened to H. pylori... read more or taking NSAIDs (pain medicine such as aspirin or ibuprofen) can damage your defenses against stomach acid
Stomach acid irritates the lining of your stomach or duodenum
You may have pain or discomfort at the top of your belly
Ulcers that go deeper may cause bleeding or a hole in your stomach
Doctors treat peptic ulcers with antibiotics to get rid of Helicobacter pylori infection and medicine to lower stomach acid
Stomach and Intestine
What causes peptic ulcers?
The 2 most common causes of peptic ulcers are:
Infection of your stomach, usually by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori
Use of NSAIDs (pain medicine, such as ibuprofen or aspirin) and certain other medicines
People who smoke are more likely to develop a peptic ulcer. Also, their ulcers heal more slowly and are likely to come back.
What are the symptoms of a peptic ulcer?
Many people with a peptic ulcer have no symptoms. When they happen, the most common symptom is:
Mild to moderate belly pain (can be a burning, gnawing, aching feeling in the upper middle part of the belly just below the breastbone)
The pain usually comes and goes. Eating food usually makes duodenal ulcers feel better, but then the pain comes back in a few hours. Taking antacids also usually makes the pain better.
Other symptoms include:
Feeling sick to your stomach or throwing up
What are the complications of peptic ulcers?
Peptic ulcers can cause problems such as:
Bleeding, which causes black stools (poop), or throwing up blood or what looks like coffee grounds
A hole (perforation) through the wall of the stomach or small intestine causing severe infection and pain in your belly
Helicobacter pylori infection that isn't treated puts you at greater risk for stomach cancer Stomach Cancer Cancer is the out-of-control growth of cells in your body. Cells are the tiny building blocks of your body. Cells specialize in what they do. Different organs are made of different kinds of... read more .
How can doctors tell if I have a peptic ulcer?
Your doctor may suspect an ulcer based on your symptoms and just start you on ulcer treatment. If you get better, they often don't do any tests.
However, doctors may do tests if:
You've had symptoms for a long time
Your symptoms are severe or aren't typical for ulcers
Your symptoms didn't start until you were past age 45
You don't get better after taking medicine
The main test doctors do is:
Endoscopy Endoscopy Endoscope is an instrument doctors use to look inside your body. Endoscopes can also be used to do tests and treat diseases. Endoscopes are tubes that have a light and a small video camera on... read more (using a flexible viewing tube to look in your stomach)
During endoscopy, doctors usually take a biopsy (a sample of your tissue to look at under a microscope) to look for Helicobacter pylori bacteria or cancer.
How do doctors treat peptic ulcers?
Doctors treat ulcers with medicines, such as:
Antibiotics, if you have Helicobacter pylori infection
Acid-reducing drugs (such as proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 blockers)
Antacids, such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide, or magnesium hydroxide
Doctors will also ask you to avoid:
Aspirin and other NSAIDs
Foods that make pain or bloating worse
If you have a bleeding ulcer, doctors do endoscopy to give treatments that make the bleeding stop. If you have a hole through the wall of your stomach or intestine, you'll need surgery.