Cardiac rehabilitation Acute Coronary Syndromes (Heart Attack; Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina) Acute coronary syndromes result from a sudden blockage in a coronary artery. This blockage causes unstable angina or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the location and amount... read more is useful for some people who have had a recent heart attack, have heart failure or coronary artery disease that has recently developed or suddenly worsened, or had heart surgery. The goal is to regain full function, or, alternatively, to maintain or regain independence or, at the least, to do basic activities of daily living, within the constraints of abnormal heart function. (See also Overview of Rehabilitation Overview of Rehabilitation Rehabilitation services are needed by people who have lost the ability to function normally, often because of an injury, a stroke, an infection, a tumor, surgery, or a progressive disorder ... read more .)
Remaining in bed for longer than 2 or 3 days can lead to weakening of muscles and the heart (deconditioning) and even depression Depression A short discussion of prolonged grief disorder. Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to... read more . Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation is started as soon as possible after the person has been stabilized, if needed (as after a heart attack), and usually while the person is still in the hospital.
Rehabilitation programs typically begin with light activity, such as transferring to and sitting in a chair. When these activities can be done comfortably, usually by the second or third day, more moderate activities, such as dressing, grooming, and walking short distances, are begun.
In many hospitals, people are taken to a physical therapy gym. There, exercise may involve walking on a treadmill or using a stationary bike. If fatigue or discomfort occurs as activity is increased, the person is instructed to stop immediately and rest until symptoms disappear. A doctor then reassesses how well the person's heart is functioning to assess their readiness to continue rehabilitation. Before the person is discharged from the hospital, doctors evaluate the person so that they can recommend an appropriate rehabilitation or exercise program.
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After discharge, the amount and intensity of activity are slowly increased, and a full range of normal activities can be resumed after about 6 weeks. Most people benefit from an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program, which is usually about 12 weeks long, because they receive instruction and are monitored. For example, they may receive help with handling the psychologic effects of having had a heart attack or heart surgery.
People learn why changes in lifestyle are necessary and how to make them, so that risk factors are modified. The following lifestyle changes all help prevent or slow the progression of coronary artery disease and reduce the risk of another heart attack:
Controlling blood pressure
Reducing blood cholesterol levels through diet or drugs
Doing daily aerobic exercises
Similarly, modifying risk factors may help slow the progression of heart failure.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Cardiac Rehab: Your Roadmap to Recovery: Basic information about cardiac rehabilitation to help people communicate with their doctors about an appropriate rehabilitation program