There are many paraphilias. The focus of the paraphilia may be a variety of objects, situations, animals, or people (such as children or nonconsenting adults). Sexual arousal may depend on the use or presence of this focus. Once these arousal patterns are established, usually in late childhood or near puberty, they are often lifelong.
Some degree of variety in sexual activity is very common in healthy adult sexual relationships and fantasies. When people mutually agree to engage in them, unusual sexual behaviors that cause no harm may be part of a loving and caring relationship. However, when sexual behaviors cause distress or harm or interfere with a person's ability to function in daily activities, they are considered a paraphilic disorder. The distress may result from other people's reactions or from the person's guilt about doing something socially unacceptable.
Paraphilic disorders can seriously impair the capacity for affectionate, reciprocal sexual activity. Partners of people with a paraphilic disorder may feel like an object or as if they are unimportant or unnecessary in the sexual relationship.
The most common paraphilic disorders are
Others include sexual masochism disorder Sexual Masochism Disorder Sexual masochism involves acts in which a person experiences sexual excitement from being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise abused. Sexual masochism disorder is sexual masochism that causes... read more and sexual sadism disorder Sexual Sadism Disorder Sexual sadism involves acts in which a person experiences sexual excitement from inflicting physical or psychologic suffering on another person. Sexual sadism disorder is sexual sadism that... read more .
Most people with paraphilias are men, and many have more than one type of paraphilia. Some of them also have a severe personality disorder, such as antisocial personality disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for consequences and for the rights of others. People with antisocial personality disorder go after what... read more or narcissistic personality disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of feeling superior (grandiosity), needing admiration, and lacking empathy. People with narcissistic personality disorder... read more .
Some paraphilias, such as pedophilia, are against the law.