Symptoms include pain and tingling of the forehead, blisters on the forehead and nose, eye ache and redness, light sensitivity, and eyelid swelling.
Doctors diagnose herpes zoster ophthalmicus based on evidence of a shingles rash and involvement of the eye.
The shingles vaccine can help prevent reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus.
People with herpes zoster ophthalmicus are treated with antiviral drugs.
Varicella-zoster is the virus that causes chickenpox Chickenpox Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection with the varicella-zoster virus that causes a characteristic itchy rash, consisting of small, raised, blistered, or crusted spots. Chickenpox... read more . Once people are infected, the virus remains in a dormant (inactive) stage in the nerve roots. In some people, the virus reactivates because of waning immunity with aging and may spread to the skin, causing herpes zoster, also called shingles Shingles Shingles is a painful skin rash caused by a viral infection that results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox. What causes the virus to reactive... read more . If the virus affects the forehead or nose, the eye also can become infected in about half of people, on the same side as the affected skin.
Symptoms of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
Pain or tingling of the forehead may occur before any other symptoms (called a prodrome).
The skin of the forehead and sometimes the tip of the nose are covered with small, extremely painful, red blisters.
Infection of the eye causes ache, redness, light sensitivity, and eyelid swelling. The cornea (the clear layer in front of the iris and pupil) can get infected and inflamed. Months and years later, the cornea can become swollen, severely damaged, and scarred. The structures behind the cornea can become inflamed (uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is inflammation anywhere in the pigmented inside lining of the eye, known as the uvea or uveal tract. The uveal tract may become inflamed because of infection, injury, a bodywide autoimmune... read more ), the pressure in the eye can increase (glaucoma Glaucoma Glaucomas are a group of eye disorders characterized by progressive optic nerve damage (often, but not always, associated with increased eye pressure) that can lead to irreversible loss of vision... read more ), and the cornea can become numb, which leaves it vulnerable to injuries.
An Inside Look at the Eye
Diagnosis of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
A doctor's evaluation
The appearance of active shingles Shingles Shingles is a painful skin rash caused by a viral infection that results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes chickenpox. What causes the virus to reactive... read more , a history of the typical rash, or old scars resulting from a previous shingles rash help a doctor make the diagnosis of shingles.
Prevention of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
A recombinant shingles vaccine Shingles Vaccine The herpes zoster virus that causes shingles is the same virus that causes chickenpox. After chickenpox resolves, the virus remains in the body. It can be reactivated years later and cause shingles... read more is recommended for healthy people aged 50 or over, regardless of whether they have had chickenpox or shingles or been given the older herpes zoster vaccine. The recombinant vaccine is effective in more than 90% of people, whereas the older vaccine was effective in 50% of people.
Treatment of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
Antiviral drugs taken by mouth
Corticosteroid eye drops
Eye drops to keep the pupil dilated
As with shingles anywhere in the body, early treatment with an antiviral drug such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir (which are taken by mouth) can reduce the duration of the painful rash. When herpes zoster infects the face and threatens the eye, treatment with an antiviral drug reduces the risk of eye complications.
Corticosteroids, usually in eye drops, may also be needed if the eye is inflamed.
Eye drops, such as cyclopentolate or atropine, are used to keep the pupil dilated, to help prevent a severe form of glaucoma, and to relieve pain.