PFAPA syndrome is the most common periodic fever syndrome in children. Although it probably does not have a genetic cause, PFAPA is usually grouped with hereditary fever syndromes. PFAPA syndrome typically starts between the ages of 2 and 5 years and tends to be more common among boys. Recently it has been recognized in adults as well.
About once a month, children have a fever that lasts 3 to 6 days. The syndrome causes fatigue, chills, and occasionally abdominal pain and headache, as well as fever, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and swollen lymph glands. Children are healthy between episodes, and growth is normal. Children tend to outgrow the syndrome.
A doctor usually bases the diagnosis of PFAPA syndrome on symptoms and the pattern in which they occur. Blood tests may be done to measure substances that indicate inflammation (called markers).
No treatment for PFAPA syndrome is required, but children may be given corticosteroids to relieve symptoms. Cimetidine seems to be helpful in some children. If these treatments do not help, doctors rarely remove the tonsils (tonsillectomy), which usually relieves symptoms. Another drug called anakinra may help some children.
Ibuprofen or acetaminophen can be given to relieve pain and fever.
Children tend to outgrow this syndrome.