Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may develop in people who abuse alcohol and other malnourished people, usually because of a deficiency of thiamin Thiamin Deficiency Thiamin deficiency (causing beriberi and other problems) is most common among people whose diet mainly consists of white rice or highly processed carbohydrates in countries with high rates of... read more (vitamin B1).
Symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Wernicke encephalopathy Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is a brain disorder that causes confusion, eye problems, and loss of balance and results from thiamin deficiency. Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by a severe deficiency... read more causes loss of balance, staggering when walking, eye movement problems, confusion, and drowsiness.
Korsakoff syndrome Korsakoff Psychosis Korsakoff psychosis is a complication of Wernicke encephalopathy and causes memory loss for recent events, confusion, and behavioral changes. (See also Drug Use and Abuse.) Korsakoff psychosis... read more may initially cause severe memory loss for recent events. Memory of more distant past events seems to be less impaired. Thus, people may be able to interact socially and converse coherently even though they cannot remember anything that happened in the preceding few days, months, or years or even in the preceding few minutes. They tend to make things up (confabulate) rather than admit that they cannot remember. Because they cannot remember things they have recently done, they may, for example, never tire of reading a favorite magazine over and over again.
Diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
A doctor's evaluation
Doctors suspect Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in people who have the characteristic symptoms and who have a disorder that can cause thiamin deficiency (such as undernutrition) It is especially common among malnourished people with alcohol use disorder Alcohol Alcohol (ethanol) is a depressant. Consuming large amounts rapidly or regularly can cause health problems, including organ damage, coma, and death. Genetics and personal characteristics may... read more .
Tests, such as blood tests to measure blood sugar and electrolyte levels, a complete blood cell count, liver function tests, and imaging of the brain, are usually done to rule out other causes. Sometimes doctors measure the thiamin level in blood.
Treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
Thiamin and fluids given by vein (intravenously)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a medical emergency. Treatment consists of thiamin given intravenously. It can correct Wernicke encephalopathy, although recovery is often incomplete if treatment was delayed. Despite treatment, symptoms of Korsakoff syndrome may persist and not resolve.
If untreated, Wernicke encephalopathy can be fatal, but death rarely results in developed countries.