At least 4 types of molecularly and prognostically distinct medulloblastomas have been identified based on new molecular markers. Prognosis varies by type.
Medulloblastomas can disseminate throughout the CSF and should to be staged using lumbar puncture and craniospinal imaging to determine the extent of the spread.
Treatment depends on the medulloblastoma genotype, patient age, and extent of the spread. Typically in children, maximal safe resection is followed by multidrug chemotherapy in an attempt to avoid radiation therapy. In adults, surgery is followed by radiation therapy; some data suggest that adding chemotherapy may improve survival.
With treatment, survival rates are ≥ 50% at 5 yr and about 40% at 10 yr.