(See also Overview of Gastroenteritis Overview of Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines. It is usually caused by infection with a microorganism but can also be caused by ingestion of chemical... read more .)
Drugs and Medications
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are common side effects of many drugs and medications. Common offenders include
Antacids containing magnesium as a major ingredient
Colchicine (for gout)
Digoxin (usually used for heart failure or certain irregular heart rhythms)
Medications used to treat internal parasitic worms
Antibiotic use also may cause Clostridioides difficile–induced diarrhea Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile–Induced Colitis Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile)–induced colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that results in diarrhea. The inflammation is caused by toxin produced... read more .
Laxative abuse Laxatives Recreational drug use typically involves mind-altering drugs, but it may also involve drugs or medications taken for other purposes, usually losing weight or enhancing athletic performance.... read more can lead to weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, electrolyte loss, and other disturbances.
Recognizing that a drug or medication is causing gastroenteritis can be difficult. In mild cases, a doctor can have a person stop taking the drug or medication and later start taking it again. If the symptoms subside when the person stops taking the drug or medication and resume when the person starts taking it again, it may be the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms. In severe cases of gastroenteritis, a doctor may instruct the person to stop taking the drug or medication permanently.
Gastroenteritis may result from ingesting chemical toxins (see Overview of Food Poisoning Overview of Food Poisoning Food poisoning results from eating a plant or animal that contains a toxin. The poisoning occurs after ingesting poisonous species of mushrooms or plants or contaminated fish or shellfish. The... read more ). These toxins are usually produced by a plant, such as poisonous mushrooms Mushroom (Toadstool) Poisoning Many species of mushroom are poisonous and can cause different symptoms depending on the type of mushroom. Different species of mushrooms produce different toxins with different effects. Even... read more , or by certain kinds of seafood Fish and Shellfish Poisoning Certain types of fresh or frozen fish or shellfish may contain toxins that can cause a variety of symptoms. Vomiting and diarrhea ( gastroenteritis) caused by toxins is different from gastroenteritis... read more and thus are not the product of an infection.
Gastroenteritis due to chemical toxicity can also occur after ingesting water or food contaminated by chemicals such as arsenic and heavy metals such as lead Lead Poisoning Lead poisoning affects many parts of the body, including the brain, nerves, kidneys, liver, and blood. Children are particularly susceptible because their nervous system is still developing... read more , mercury, or cadmium or after directly eating or swallowing a chemical or metal. Heavy-metal poisoning frequently causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
Doctors ask about recent contact with contaminated food or water or with heavy metals. Sometimes gastroenteritis can be traced to contaminated water or inadequately cooked, spoiled, or contaminated food. People who have ingested a heavy metal may have a blood test to determine the level of metal that is in the blood.
Usually the only treatment needed for gastroenteritis, including gastroenteritis caused by drugs, medications, or chemicals, is getting bed rest and drinking an adequate amount of fluid. Even a person who is vomiting should drink as much as can be tolerated, taking small frequent sips.
If vomiting or diarrhea is prolonged or the person becomes severely dehydrated, fluids and electrolytes given by vein (intravenously) may be needed.
Because children can become dehydrated more quickly, they should be given fluids with the appropriate mix of salts and sugars. Any of the commercially available solutions designed to replace lost fluids and electrolytes (called oral rehydration solutions Treatment Dehydration is loss of water from the body, usually caused by vomiting and/or diarrhea. Dehydration occurs when there is significant loss of body water and, to varying amounts, electrolytes... read more ) are satisfactory. Carbonated beverages, teas, sports drinks, beverages containing caffeine, and fruit juices are not appropriate. If the child is breastfed, breastfeeding Breastfeeding Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns and infants. Although babies may be fed breast milk or formula, the World Health Organization (WHO) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend... read more should continue.
As the symptoms subside, the person may gradually add foods to the diet. There is no need to limit the diet to bland foods such as cereal, gelatin, bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast. However, some people are unable to tolerate milk products for a few days after having diarrhea.