(See also Overview of Allergic Reactions Overview of Allergic Reactions Allergic reactions (hypersensitivity reactions) are inappropriate responses of the immune system to a normally harmless substance. Usually, allergies cause sneezing, watery and itchy eyes, a... read more .)
A physical allergy differs from other allergic reactions because the trigger is a physical stimulus. Physical stimuli include the following:
Heat or other stimuli that cause sweating (such as emotional stress or exercise)
Minor injuries (such as those due to scratching)
For some people, symptoms occur only in response to a physical stimulus. For some people who have other allergies, a physical stimulus makes symptoms worse.
Causes of Physical Allergy
What causes a physical allergic reaction is not understood. One theory suggests that the physical stimulus changes a protein in the skin. The immune system then mistakes this protein for a foreign substance and attacks it. Sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity Peptic Ulcer Disease A peptic ulcer is a round or oval sore where the lining of the stomach or duodenum has been eaten away by stomach acid and digestive juices. Peptic ulcers can result from infection with Helicobacter... read more ) is an example. Ultraviolet light in sunlight changes proteins in the skin, which the body then identifies as foreign and attacks. Photosensitivity is sometimes triggered by the use of drugs (such as antibiotics), some cosmetics (such as skin creams, lotions, and oils), or other substances.
Symptoms of Physical Allergy
Itching, skin blotches, hives Hives Hives are red, itchy, slightly elevated swellings. The swelling is caused by the release of chemicals (such as histamine) from mast cells in the skin, which cause fluid to leak out of small... read more , and swelling of tissues under the skin (angioedema Angioedema Angioedema is swelling of areas of tissue under the skin, sometimes affecting the face and throat. Angioedema can be a reaction to a drug or other substance (trigger), a hereditary disorder... read more ) are the most common symptoms. Symptoms tend to develop within minutes of exposure to the physical stimulus.
When people who are sensitive to heat are exposed to heat or engage in any activity that causes sweating, they may develop small, intensely itchy hives that are surrounded by a ring of redness—a condition called cholinergic urticaria.
When people who are sensitive to cold are exposed to cold, they may develop hives, asthma, a runny nose, nasal stuffiness, or angioedema. Rarely, a severe, widespread anaphylactic reaction Anaphylactic Reactions Anaphylactic reactions are sudden, widespread, potentially severe and life-threatening allergic reactions. Anaphylactic reactions often begin with a feeling of uneasiness, followed by tingling... read more occurs.
Diagnosis of Physical Allergy
A doctor's evaluation
The diagnosis of physical allergies is based on symptoms and the circumstances in which they occur.
To diagnose reactions caused by cold, doctors place an ice cube on the skin for 4 minutes, remove the ice cube, then watch for the development of a hive.
People may be advised not to use cosmetics and skin creams, lotions, and oils for a while to help determine whether one of these substances may be worsening the allergy.
Treatment of Physical Allergy
Avoidance of the trigger
The best treatment for physical allergies is to avoid the stimulus that causes the physical allergy. For example, people who are very sensitive to sunlight should use a sunscreen and avoid exposure to the sun as much as possible.
An antihistamine can usually relieve itching. The most effective treatments are cyproheptadine for hives caused by cold and hydroxyzine for hives caused by heat or emotional stress.