Several muscles working together move the eye, allowing people to look in different directions without moving their head. Each eye muscle is stimulated by a specific cranial nerve Overview of the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves—the cranial nerves—lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. Some of the cranial nerves are involved in the special senses (such as seeing... read more .
The optic nerve (a cranial nerve), which carries impulses from the retina to the brain, as well as other cranial nerves, which transmit impulses to each eye muscle, travel through the orbit (the bony cavity that surrounds the eyeball).
An ophthalmic artery and a central retinal artery (an artery that branches off of the ophthalmic artery) provide blood to each eye.
Similarly, ophthalmic veins (vortex veins) and a central retinal vein drain blood from the eye. These blood vessels enter and leave through the back of the eye.