Emergency dental treatment by a physician is sometimes required when a dentist is unavailable to treat the following conditions:
Postextraction problems Postextraction Problems Postextraction problems are a subset of dental emergencies that require immediate treatment. These problems include Swelling and pain Postextraction alveolitis Osteomyelitis Osteonecrosis of the jaw read more (eg, bleeding, swelling and pain, alveolitis and osteomyelitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw [ONJ])
Analgesia and treatment of infection
Oral analgesics effective for most dental problems include acetaminophen 650 to 1000 mg every 6 hours and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen 400 to 800 mg every 6 hours. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen also can be used together for a brief period, alternating the drugs every 3 hours. For severe pain, these drugs may be combined with opioids such as codeine 60 mg; hydrocodone 5 mg, 7.5 mg, or 10 mg; or oxycodone 5 mg.
Antibiotics for dental infections include penicillin VK 500 mg orally every 6 hours for 3 to 7 days and, if the patient is sensitive or allergic to penicillin, clindamycin 300 mg orally every 6 hours for 3 to 7 days (1 General treatment references Emergency dental treatment by a physician is sometimes required when a dentist is unavailable to treat the following conditions: Fractured and avulsed teeth Mandibular dislocation Postextraction... read more ).
For prevention of infective endocarditis Prevention Infective endocarditis is infection of the endocardium, usually with bacteria (commonly, streptococci or staphylococci) or fungi. It may cause fever, heart murmurs, petechiae, anemia, embolic... read more , 2019 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing dental procedures only for patients with
Prosthetic cardiac valves, including transcatheter-implanted prostheses or with prosthetic material used for valve repair
Previous infective endocarditis
Specific congenital heart diseases
Cardiac transplant recipients with heart valve problems (valvulopathy)
For patients with prosthetic joint implants, American Dental Association 2015 guidelines (2 General treatment references Emergency dental treatment by a physician is sometimes required when a dentist is unavailable to treat the following conditions: Fractured and avulsed teeth Mandibular dislocation Postextraction... read more ) state that prophylactic antibiotics are not typically recommended but may be considered for patients with
Past joint infection
Recent joint placement
Dental procedures requiring prophylaxis are those that require manipulation or perforation of gingival or oral mucosa or that involve the root end area of the teeth (ie, those most likely to cause bacteremia Bacteremia Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It can occur spontaneously, during certain tissue infections, with use of indwelling genitourinary or IV catheters, or after dental... read more ). The preferred drug is amoxicillin 2 g orally 30 to 60 minutes before the procedure. For those who cannot tolerate penicillins, alternatives include clindamycin 600 mg or cephalexin 2 g.
General treatment references
1. Lockhart PB, Tampi MP, Abt E, et al: Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling: A report from the American Dental Association. J Am Dent Assoc 150(11):906-921.e12, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.08.020
2. Sollecito TP, Abt E, Lockhart PB, et al: The use of prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental procedures in patients with prosthetic joints: Evidence-based clinical practice guideline for dental practitioners—A report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. J Am Dent Assoc 146(1):11-16e8, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2014.11.012