(See also Overview of Vasculitis Overview of Vasculitis Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels, often with ischemia, necrosis, and organ inflammation. Vasculitis can affect any blood vessel—arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, or capillaries... read more .)
Takayasu arteritis is rare. It is more common among Asians but occurs worldwide. Female:male ratio is 8:1, and age at onset is typically 15 to 30. In North America, annual incidence is estimated to be 2.6 cases/million.
Etiology of Takayasu Arteritis
The cause of Takayasu arteritis is unknown. Cell-mediated immune mechanisms may be involved.
Pathophysiology of Takayasu Arteritis
Takayasu arteritis affects primarily large elastic arteries. The most commonly affected are
Innominate and subclavian arteries
Aorta (mainly the ascending aorta and the arch)
Common carotid arteries
Most patients have stenoses or occlusions. Aneurysms occur in about one third of patients. Usually, the wall of the aorta or its branches thickens irregularly, with intimal wrinkling. When the aortic arch is affected, orifices of the major arteries emerging from the aorta may be markedly narrowed or even obliterated by intimal thickening. In one half of patients, pulmonary arteries are also affected. Sometimes the medium-sized branches of the pulmonary arteries are involved.
Histologically, early changes consist of adventitial mononuclear infiltrate with perivascular cuffing of the vasa vasorum. Later, intense mononuclear inflammation of the media may occur, sometimes accompanied by granulomatous changes, giant cells, and patchy necrosis of the media. Morphologic changes may be indistinguishable from those of giant cell arteritis Giant Cell Arteritis Giant cell arteritis involves predominantly the thoracic aorta, large arteries emerging from the aorta in the neck, and extracranial branches of the carotid arteries. Symptoms of polymyalgia... read more . Panarteritic inflammatory infiltrates cause marked thickening of the affected artery and subsequent luminal narrowing and occlusion.
Symptoms and Signs of Takayasu Arteritis
Most patients present with only focal symptoms that reflect hypoperfusion of the affected organ or limb.
About 50% of patients report constitutional symptoms such as fever, malaise, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and/or arthralgias.
Repetitive arm movements and sustained arm elevation may cause pain and fatigue. Arterial pulses in arms and legs may be diminished and asymmetric. Extremities may have findings of ischemia (eg, coolness, leg claudication). Bruits are often audible over the subclavian arteries, brachial arteries, carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, or femoral arteries. Reduced blood pressure in one or both arms is common.
Involvement of the carotid and vertebral arteries results in reduced cerebral blood flow manifested by dizziness, syncope, orthostatic hypotension, headaches, transient visual disturbances, transient ischemic attacks, or strokes.
Stenotic lesions in a subclavian artery near the origin of a patent vertebral artery can cause posterior circulation ischemic neurologic symptoms or syncope when the arm is used (called subclavian steal syndrome). The mechanisms are retrograde flow through the vertebral artery to supply the subclavian artery distal to the stenosis and vasodilation of the arterial bed in the upper limb during exercise.
Angina pectoris or myocardial infarction may result from narrowing of the coronary artery orifice due to aortitis or coronary arteritis. Aortic regurgitation may occur if the ascending aorta is markedly dilated. Heart failure can develop.
Obstruction of the descending thoracic aorta sometimes causes signs of aortic coarctation (eg, hypertension, headache, leg claudication). Renovascular hypertension may develop if the abdominal aorta or renal arteries are narrowed. Intermittent arm or leg claudication can develop.
Pulmonary arteries are affected, sometimes causing pulmonary hypertension. Involvement of the medium-sized branches of the pulmonary arteries can cause pulmonary infarcts. Because Takayasu arteritis is chronic, collateral circulation can develop. Thus, ischemic ulcerations or gangrene due to obstruction of the arteries to the extremities is rare.
Diagnosis of Takayasu Arteritis
Magnetic resonance angiography, sometimes CT angiography or aortic arteriography
The diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis is suspected when symptoms suggest ischemia of organs supplied by the aorta or its branches or when peripheral pulses are decreased or absent in patients at low risk of atherosclerosis and other aortic disorders, especially in young women. In these patients, arterial bruits and right/left or upper extremity/lower extremity discrepancies in pulses or in blood pressure (BP) also suggest the diagnosis.
Confirmation of the diagnosis used to require aortic arteriography; however, now magnetic resonance angiography or CT angiography can be used instead to evaluate all branches of the aorta. Characteristic findings include stenosis, occlusion, irregularities in arterial lumens, poststenotic dilation, collateral arteries around obstructed vessels, and aneurysms.
BP is measured in all extremities. However, accurate measurement of BP can be difficult. If both subclavian arteries are severely affected, systemic BP can be accurately measured only in the legs. If the disorder affects both subclavian arteries and patients have coarctation of the descending aorta and/or involvement of both iliac or femoral arteries, BP cannot be accurately measured in any limb. Then, central arterial pressure must be measured via angiography to detect occult hypertension, which can cause complications.
Other clues to occult hypertension can be funduscopic signs of hypertensive retinopathy and/or echocardiographic signs of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. When severe hypertension is not recognized, complications can be confused with signs of vasculitis causing organ ischemia.
Laboratory tests are nonspecific and not helpful in diagnosis. Common findings include anemia of chronic disease, elevated platelet levels, occasionally elevated white blood cell counts, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein.
The following are indicators of disease activity in Takayasu arteritis:
Symptoms and signs: New systemic symptoms (eg, fever, fatigue, weight loss, anorexia, night sweats), symptoms suggesting vasculitis involving new arterial territories (eg, claudication), new bruits, and/or new changes in BP measurements
Laboratory tests: Evidence of inflammation detected by blood tests (although markers of inflammation may be normal in active arteritis)
Imaging studies: Development of stenosis or aneurysms in previously unaffected arteries (assessed with periodic imaging [usually magnetic resonance angiography])
However, Takayasu arteritis can progress silently even when clinical and laboratory studies suggest complete remission. Therefore, periodic imaging of the aorta and large arteries is mandatory. BP should be measured regularly in an unaffected limb.
Disorders that mimic Takayasu arteritis must be excluded. They include
Inherited noninflammatory connective tissue disorders (eg, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a hereditary collagen disorder characterized by articular hypermobility, dermal hyperelasticity, and widespread tissue fragility. Diagnosis is clinical. Treatment is... read more or Marfan syndrome Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome consists of connective tissue anomalies resulting in ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular abnormalities (eg, dilation of ascending aorta, which can lead to aortic dissection)... read more )
Vascular infections (tuberculous, fungal, or syphilitic)
Disorders causing arterial thrombosis (eg, hypercoagulable states)
Idiopathic inflammatory conditions (eg, ankylosing spondylitis Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is the prototypical spondyloarthropathy and a systemic disorder characterized by inflammation of the axial skeleton, large peripheral joints, and digits; nocturnal back... read more with aortitis, rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that primarily involves the joints. RA causes damage mediated by cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteases. Characteristically... read more , Cogan syndrome Cogan Syndrome Cogan syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease involving the eye and the inner ear. Cogan syndrome affects young adults, with 80% of patients between 14 and 47 years. The disease appears to result... read more or Behçet syndrome Behçet Disease Behçet disease is a multisystem, relapsing, chronic vasculitic disorder with mucosal inflammation. Common manifestations include recurrent oral ulcers, ocular inflammation, genital ulcers... read more , Kawasaki disease Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease is a vasculitis, sometimes involving the coronary arteries, that tends to occur in infants and children between the ages of 1 year and 8 years. It is characterized by prolonged... read more , sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder resulting in noncaseating granulomas in one or more organs and tissues; etiology is unknown. The lungs and lymphatic system are most often affected, but... read more )
All of these disorders can affect large vessels.
Prognosis for Takayasu Arteritis
For 20% of patients, the course is monophasic. For the rest, the course is relapsing and remitting or chronic and progressive. Even when symptoms and laboratory abnormalities suggest quiescence, new vascular lesions occur and are evident on imaging studies. A progressive course and the presence of complications (eg, hypertension, aortic regurgitation, heart failure, aneurysms) predict a less favorable prognosis.
Treatment of Takayasu Arteritis
Sometimes other immunosuppressants
Antihypertensives and/or vascular interventions as needed
Corticosteroids are the cornerstone of Takayasu arteritis treatment. The optimal dose, tapering schedule, and length of treatment have not been determined. Treatment with corticosteroids alone induces remission in most patients. Prednisone is usually used. The starting dose is 1 mg/kg orally once a day for 1 to 3 months; the dose is then tapered slowly over several months. Lower starting doses may also induce remission. About half of patients relapse when the drug is tapered or stopped, despite initial response.
Methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors (eg, infliximab), and tocilizumab have been used successfully in some patients (1 Treatment references Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory disease affecting the aorta, its branches, and pulmonary arteries. It occurs predominantly in young women. Etiology is unknown. Vascular inflammation may... read more , 2 Treatment references Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory disease affecting the aorta, its branches, and pulmonary arteries. It occurs predominantly in young women. Etiology is unknown. Vascular inflammation may... read more ). They can be tried if corticosteroids are insufficiently effective or cannot be tapered. Methotrexate is started at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg once a week, which is increased up to 25 mg/week. Mycophenolate mofetil can also be tried. Cyclophosphamide should be considered in patients with coronary vasculitis or other serious complications thought to be due to active arteritis.
An antiplatelet drug (eg, aspirin 325 mg orally once a day) is frequently used because platelet-mediated occlusion may play a role in the progression of ischemia. Hypertension should be treated aggressively; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be effective.
Vascular intervention, usually a bypass procedure, may be needed to reestablish blood flow to ischemic tissues if drug therapy is ineffective. Indications include the following:
Coronary artery stenosis causing symptomatic coronary artery disease or ischemic cardiomyopathy
Dissection of enlarged aortic aneurysm
Severe hypertension secondary to renal artery stenosis that is refractory to medical management
Limb ischemia that interferes with daily activities
Coarctation of the aorta
Inability to measure blood pressure accurately (in any limb)
Bypass grafting preferably with an autologous graft has the best patency rates. The anastomosis should be made at disease-free sites of the affected arteries to help prevent aneurysm formation and occlusion; vessels that are likely to be involved in the future, such as the subclavian arteries, are usually not used for revascularization.
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has few risks and may be effective for short lesions. But long-term restenosis rates seem much higher than those with bypass grafting. Vascular stenting is usually not recommended because the restenosis rate is high.
For aortic regurgitation, valvular surgery with aortic root replacement may be necessary.
1. Mekinian A, Neel A, Sibilia J, et al: Efficacy and tolerance of infliximab in refractory Takayasu arteritis: French multicentre study. Rheumatology 51:882–886, 2012. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ker380.
2. Mekinian A, Comarmond C, Resche-Rigon A, et al: Efficacy of biological-targeted treatments in Takayasu arteritis: Multicenter, retrospective study of 49 patients. Circulation 132:1693–1700, 2015. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014321.
Takayasu arteritis is a rare arteritis affecting mostly women aged 15 to 30.
Involvement of the aorta, pulmonary artery, and their branches can cause manifestations such as asymmetric pulses or BP measurements, limb claudication, symptoms of decreased cerebral perfusion (eg, transient visual disturbances, transient ischemic attacks, strokes), and hypertension (systemic and pulmonary) or its complications.
Diagnose by magnetic resonance angiography or sometimes CT or conventional angiography.
Treat with corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, aspirin, and, when indicated, antihypertensive drugs.
Refer patients for vascular intervention if, despite drug therapy, they have severe vascular complications (eg, end-organ ischemia; aortic dissection coarctation, or insufficiency).