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Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes


The Manual's Editorial Staff

Reviewed/Revised Apr 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
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Sudden cardiac death in athletes is when someone dies suddenly from a heart problem brought on by exercise.

  • Sudden cardiac death in athletes is rare (about 1 in 200,000 athletes)

  • It can happen to older people who know they have heart problems

  • It also can happen to people who are young and seem healthy but have a heart problem they don't know about

  • Talk to your doctor before starting a new sport or exercise routine

What causes sudden cardiac death in athletes?

Younger people usually have rare heart problems that they were born with. They usually don't know they have a heart problem.

The most common heart problem in younger people is:

Other heart problems in younger people include:

At any age, you're more likely to have sudden cardiac death during exercise if you use street drugs that stimulate the heart. Such drugs include cocaine and amphetamines.

What are the symptoms of sudden cardiac death?

Most young athletes are healthy and don't know they have a heart problem. Some athletes have warning signs such as fainting or shortness of breath. Athletes may not realize these are symptoms of a serious problem and may not tell anyone.

However, the first sign is usually that the person suddenly collapses. Their heart isn't beating, and they aren't breathing. People usually die unless given CPR Standard CPR Cardiac arrest is when the heart stops pumping blood and oxygen to the brain and other organs and tissues. Sometimes a person can be revived after cardiac arrest, particularly if treatment is... read more Standard CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation).

How can doctors tell if I am at risk for sudden cardiac death?

See your doctor before you begin a sport or exercise program. Your doctor will ask about your health history and do a physical exam to catch problems that could make exercise dangerous for you.

High school athletes should have an examination every other year. Adults should have one every 4 years. If doctors know you have certain medical problems, they'll usually check you more often.

Risk factors doctors will ask you about include:

  • Having symptoms such as chest pain or discomfort, a fast beating heart or a heartbeat that feels uneven, fainting or near-fainting, fatigue, and difficulty breathing, especially when these symptoms happen during hard exercise

  • Having family members who fainted or died during exercise, or who died suddenly before about age 50

  • Using drugs

Depending on your age, health history, symptoms, and the specific sport you do, doctors may do tests such as:

In some countries outside the United States, doctors recommend that everybody get an ECG before starting an exercise program.

How do doctors treat sudden cardiac death?

A person who stops breathing and collapses needs immediate treatment:

If the person lives, doctors treat the condition that caused the problem. They may give medicines or put in an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. An implantable cardioverter-debrillator is a device doctors put in the heart to monitor its beat and restart the heart if it stops working.

Automated External Defibrillator: Jump-Starting the Heart

An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a device that can detect and correct a type of abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation causes cardiac arrest.

AEDs are easy to use. The American Red Cross and other organizations provide training sessions on the use of AEDs. Most training sessions take only a few hours; but it is possible to use an AED even if you have never participated in a training course. Different AEDs have somewhat different instructions for use. The instructions are written on the AED, and most modern AEDs also use voice prompts to direct the user in each step. AEDs are available in many public gathering places, such as stadiums, airports, and concert halls. People who are told by their doctor that they are likely to develop ventricular fibrillation but who do not have an implanted defibrillator may want to purchase an AED for home use by family members, who should be trained in its use.

Automated External Defibrillator: Jump-Starting the Heart
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