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Problems With Sperm


Robert W. Rebar

, MD, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine

Reviewed/Revised Feb 2024
Topic Resources

Men may have infertility if their sperm are too few in number, move too slowly, or are structurally abnormal or if the sperm's passage out of the body is blocked or disrupted.

To be fertile, a man must have an adequate quantity of normal sperm and sperm must be able to fertilize the egg. Conditions that interfere with this process can make a man less fertile.

Causes of Sperm Problems

Conditions that increase the temperature of the testes (where sperm are produced) can greatly reduce the number of sperm and the vigor of sperm movement and can increase the number of abnormal sperm. Some disorders of the testes, such as undescended testes Undescended Testes and Retractile Testes Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) are testes that remain in the abdomen or the groin instead of descending into the scrotum. Retractile testes (hypermobile testes) have descended into the... read more Undescended Testes and Retractile Testes and varicose veins (called a varicocele Scrotal Swelling Swelling of the scrotum (the sac that surrounds and protects the testes) on one or both sides may be a symptom of a urinary tract disorder. Swelling can be small and detectable only by carefully... read more Scrotal Swelling ), increase the temperature of these organs. Effects of excessive or prolonged heat can last up to 3 months.


Certain hormonal or genetic disorders may interfere with sperm production, as can other disorders.

Exposure to industrial or environmental toxins and use of certain medications can reduce sperm production. Taking anabolic steroids Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are synthetic (man-made) versions of testosterone that are used to increase muscle size. Anabolic steroids are hormones that promote muscle growth and increase strength and... read more , such as testosterone and other synthetic male hormones (androgens), lowers production of the pituitary gland hormones that stimulate sperm production and can thus decrease sperm production. They can also cause the testes to shrink.

Erectile dysfunction Infertility Problems With Ovulation Women may have infertility if the ovaries do not release an egg each month, as usually occurs during a menstrual cycle. Ovulation may not occur at all or may occur irregularly if certain hormones... read more (the inability to attain or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse) can cause infertility in men. It may result from a disorder, such as a blood vessel disorder, diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Symptoms of diabetes may... read more , multiple sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) In multiple sclerosis, patches of myelin (the substance that covers most nerve fibers) and underlying nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord are damaged or destroyed. The cause... read more , brain or nerve disorders (including Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid... read more , Parkinson disease Parkinson Disease (PD) Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of specific areas of the brain. It is characterized by tremor when muscles are at rest (resting tremor), increased muscle tone... read more , stroke Ischemic Stroke An ischemic stroke is death of an area of brain tissue (cerebral infarction) resulting from an inadequate supply of blood and oxygen to the brain due to blockage of an artery. Ischemic stroke... read more Ischemic Stroke , certain seizure disorders Seizure Disorders In seizure disorders, the brain's electrical activity is periodically disturbed, resulting in some degree of temporary brain dysfunction. Many people have unusual sensations just before a seizure... read more , and nerve damage due to prostate surgery), use of certain medications (including some antidepressants and beta-blockers), use of recreational medications (including cocaine, heroin, and amphetamines), or psychological problems (including performance anxiety or depression). Erectile dysfunction may be the first clue that a man has a blood vessel disorder such as atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a condition in which patchy deposits of fatty material (atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques) develop in the walls of medium-sized and large arteries, leading to reduced or... read more Atherosclerosis .

Did You Know...

  • Using anabolic steroids can decrease sperm production and cause the testes to shrink.

Some disorders result in the complete absence of sperm (azoospermia) in semen. They include

Locating the Male Reproductive Organs

Locating the Male Reproductive Organs

Diagnosis of Sperm Problems

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • A semen analysis

  • Sometimes testing for hormonal or genetic abnormalities

When a couple has infertility, the male partner is evaluated for sperm disorders. Doctors ask about his medical history and do a physical examination to try to identify the cause. Doctors ask about past disorders and surgery, use of medications, and possible exposure to toxins. They check for physical abnormalities, such as undescended testes, and for signs of hormonal or genetic disorders that can cause infertility. Levels of hormones (including testosterone) may be measured in the blood.

Semen analysis

A semen analysis, the main screening procedure for male infertility, is needed. For this procedure, men are often asked not to ejaculate for 2 to 3 days before the analysis. The reason is to make sure the semen contains as many sperm as possible. (However, research suggests that daily ejaculation does not reduce the sperm count in men unless there is a problem with sperm production.) The men are then asked to ejaculate by masturbation into a sterile jar, preferably at the laboratory site. For men who have difficulty producing a semen sample this way, special condoms that have no lubricants or chemicals toxic to sperm can be used to collect semen during intercourse.

Because the number of sperm varies, the test requires at least 2 samples obtained at least 1 week apart. When several samples are tested, results are more accurate than when only one is tested.

The volume of the semen sample is measured. Whether the color, consistency, thickness, and chemical composition of semen are normal is determined. The sperm are counted. A low sperm count may mean that fertility is reduced, but not always. Sperm are also examined under a microscope to determine whether they are abnormal in shape, size, or movement.

If the semen still seems to be abnormal, the doctor tries to identify the cause. If there are too few or no sperm, doctors measure levels of certain hormones, such as testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (which stimulates production of sperm in men), and genetic testing may be done. Also, urine may be checked for sperm after ejaculation to determine whether retrograde ejaculation is occurring.


Sometimes a biopsy of the testes is done to help identify the cause of infertility.

Other tests

Other tests, which use a sample of blood or semen, can be done to evaluate sperm function and quality if routine tests of both partners do not explain infertility. These tests may check for antibodies to sperm, determine whether sperm membranes are intact, or assess the sperm's ability to bind to an egg and penetrate it. However, how useful these tests are is unclear.

Hormone tests are done if results of semen analysis are abnormal, especially if the sperm count is very low. Levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (which stimulates the testes to produce sperm) and testosterone are measured. If the testosterone level is low, luteinizing hormone (which stimulates the testes to produce testosterone) and prolactin (which stimulates milk production in men and women) are measured. A high level of prolactin suggests that the cause of infertility may be a pituitary tumor or use of certain medications. If there is no explanation for elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels, genetic testing may be done.

Treatment of Sperm Problems

  • Treatment of the cause

  • Clomiphene (a fertility medication)

  • If clomiphene is ineffective, assisted reproductive technologies

If possible, the disorder causing the problem is treated. For example, varicoceles can be treated with surgery. Fertility may improve as a result, although this effect has not been proved.

If infection is detected, appropriate antibiotics are used.


Clomiphene Clomiphene Women may have infertility if the ovaries do not release an egg each month, as usually occurs during a menstrual cycle. Ovulation may not occur at all or may occur irregularly if certain hormones... read more , a medication used to stimulate (induce) ovulation in women, may be used to try to increase sperm counts in men. However, whether clomiphene improves the sperm’s ability to move or reduces the number of abnormal sperm is unclear. It has not been proved to increase fertility.

Assisted reproductive technologies and other procedures

An alternative is intrauterine insemination Intrauterine insemination Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) involve working with sperm and eggs or embryos in a laboratory (in vitro) with the goal of producing a pregnancy. If infertility treatment with only... read more Intrauterine insemination (placing semen directly in the uterus) using only the most active sperm. The most active sperm are selected by washing a semen sample. Doctors try to place these sperm in the uterus at the same time as ovulation. With this procedure, pregnancy usually occurs by the sixth attempt if it is going to occur. Intrauterine insemination is far less effective than in vitro fertilization but is much less invasive and less expensive.

Doctors can sometimes identify and retrieve a few sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection by doing a biopsy and examining the sample with a microscope to find the sperm. If no sperm are found, inseminating a woman with sperm from another man (a donor) may be considered. Because of the danger of contracting sexually transmitted infections, including infection with human immunodeficiency virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and is treated with antiretroviral medications. If untreated, it can cause... read more Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection (HIV) and hepatitis C Hepatitis C, Chronic Chronic hepatitis C is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus and that has lasted more than 6 months. Hepatitis C often causes no symptoms until after it has badly... read more , fresh semen samples from donors are no longer used in the United States. Risk of disease transmission is minimized by freezing donor sperm for 6 months or more, then retesting donors for infection. If their test results remain negative, the sample is thawed and used. Semen collection is postponed for 3 months if donors have been infected with the Zika virus Zika Virus Infection Zika virus infection is a mosquito-borne viral infection that typically causes no symptoms but can cause fever, rash, joint pain, or infection of the membrane that covers the white of the eye... read more Zika Virus Infection or if donors have lived in or traveled to an area where the Zika virus is being transmitted.

The partner of a man who has fertility problems may be treated with human gonadotropins Human gonadotropins to stimulate several eggs to mature and be released while in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination is being tried. This approach may make pregnancy more likely.

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