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Some Causes and Features of Excessive Urination

Some Causes and Features of Excessive Urination

Cause

Common Features*

Tests

Disorders that cause primarily frequent urination

Usually in women and girls

A frequent and urgent need to urinate

Burning or pain during urination

Sometimes fever and pain in the lower back or side

Sometimes blood in the urine or foul-smelling urine

Pregnancy

Typically during the last several months of pregnancy

A doctor's examination

Mainly in men over 50

Slowly worsening urinary symptoms, such as difficulty starting urination, a weak urine stream, dribbling at the end of urination, and a sensation of incomplete urination

Often detected during a digital rectal examination

Blood tests to measure the PSA level

Sometimes ultrasonography

A tender prostate detected during a digital rectal examination

Often fever, difficulty starting urination, and burning or pain during urination

Sometimes blood in the urine

In some cases, symptoms of a long-standing blockage in the urinary tract (including a weak urine stream, difficulty passing urine, or dribbling at the end of urination)

Urinalysis and urine culture and a digital rectal examination

Radiation cystitis (bladder damage caused by radiation therapy)

In people who have had radiation therapy of the lower abdomen, prostate, or perineum (the area between the genitals and anus) for treatment of cancer

A doctor's examination

Weakness and numbness in the legs

Sometimes an obvious injury

MRI of the spine

Occasional episodes of squeezing pain in the lower back, side (flank), or groin that comes and goes

Depending on where the stone is, possibly frequent urination or sudden, severe urges to urinate

Urinalysis

Ultrasonography or CT of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

Substances that increase the excretion of urine, such as caffeine, alcohol, or diuretics

In otherwise healthy people shortly after they drink beverages containing caffeine or alcohol or in people who recently started taking a diuretic

Only a doctor's examination

Unintentional passage of urine, most often when bending, coughing, sneezing, or lifting (called stress incontinence)

After water is inserted into the bladder, measurement of changes in pressure and the amount of urine in the bladder (cystometry)

Disorders that primarily increase the volume of urine

Excessive thirst

Often in young children

Sometimes in obese adults, who may already be known to have type 2 diabetes

Measurement of blood sugar (glucose) level

Excessive thirst that may appear suddenly or develop gradually

Sometimes in people who have had a brain injury or brain surgery

Blood and urine tests, done before and after people are deprived of water, then given antidiuretic hormone (water deprivation test)

Sometimes blood tests to measure the antidiuretic hormone level

Excessive thirst that develops gradually

In people who have a disorder that may affect the kidneys (such as sickle cell disease Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is an inherited genetic abnormality of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells) characterized by sickle (crescent)-shaped red blood cells and chronic... read more Sickle Cell Disease , Sjögren syndrome Sjögren Syndrome Sjögren syndrome is a common autoimmune rheumatic disorder and is characterized by excessive dryness of the eyes, mouth, and other mucous membranes. White blood cells can infiltrate and damage... read more Sjögren Syndrome , or cancer, high blood calcium level caused by Hypercalcemia (High Level of Calcium in the Blood) In hypercalcemia, the level of calcium in blood is too high. A high calcium level may result from a problem with the parathyroid glands, as well as from diet, cancer, or disorders affecting... read more Hypercalcemia (High Level of Calcium in the Blood) hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism In hypercalcemia, the level of calcium in blood is too high. A high calcium level may result from a problem with the parathyroid glands, as well as from diet, cancer, or disorders affecting... read more Hyperparathyroidism , amyloidosis Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a rare disease in which abnormally folded proteins form amyloid fibrils that accumulate in various tissues and organs, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction, organ failure, and... read more Amyloidosis , sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a disease in which abnormal collections of inflammatory cells (granulomas) form in many organs of the body. Sarcoidosis usually develops in people aged 20 to 40, most often people... read more Sarcoidosis , or certain inherited disorders) or who take a drug that may affect the kidneys (usually lithium, cidofovir, foscarnet, or ifosfamide)

Onset in the first few years of life or in children whose family members drink excess amounts of water

Blood and urine tests

Sometimes a water deprivation test

Diuretic use

In otherwise healthy people who recently started taking a diuretic

Sometimes in people who take a diuretic surreptitiously (for example, competitive athletes or other people trying to lose weight)

Usually only a doctor's examination

Drinking too much fluid (polydipsia) often due to a mental health disorder

Sometimes in people known to have a mental health disorder

Similar to tests for central diabetes insipidus

Features include symptoms and the results of the doctor's examination. Features mentioned are typical but not always present.

CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; PSA = prostate-specific antigen.