Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare type of uveitis that causes small abnormal clumps of cells (granulomas) to form. This disorder occurs in the uninjured eye after a penetrating injury (such as when a pencil, pen, or stick punctures the eye) or surgery to the other (injured) eye. Eventually, the uveal tract in the uninjured eye becomes inflamed. Uveitis Uveitis Uveitis is inflammation anywhere in the pigmented inside lining of the eye, known as the uvea or uveal tract. The uveal tract may become inflamed because of infection, injury, a bodywide autoimmune... read more appears within 2 to 12 weeks after injury or surgery in about 80% of affected people. Very rarely, sympathetic ophthalmia occurs as early as 1 week or as late as 30 years after the initial injury or surgery.
A View of the Uveal Tract
The uveal tract consists of three structures: the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Causes of Sympathetic Ophthalmia
The cause of sympathetic ophthalmia is not completely known. Many doctors think it is due to a malfunction of the body's immune system Overview of the Immune System The immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign or dangerous invaders. Such invaders include Microorganisms (commonly called germs, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi) Parasites... read more that causes the body to attack the uninjured uveal tract.
Symptoms of Sympathetic Ophthalmia
Symptoms of sympathetic ophthalmia typically include floaters Eye Flashes and Floaters Eye flashes are a person's perception of bright flashes of light, flickering lights, or streaks of light that do not correspond to external sources. Eye floaters are specks or strings that appear... read more and decreased vision.
Diagnosis of Sympathetic Ophthalmia
A doctor's evaluation
Doctors base the diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia on an eye examination and whether the person has had a recent eye injury or surgery and whether there is inflammation in both eyes.
Treatment of Sympathetic Ophthalmia
Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants
Sometimes removal of the injured eye
Treatment of sympathetic ophthalmia typically requires corticosteroids taken by mouth plus another type of drug that suppresses the immune system (immunosuppressant) and is taken long term.
Sometimes doctors remove a severely injured eye within 2 weeks of vision loss to minimize the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia developing in the uninjured eye. However, the removal procedure is done only when there is complete loss of vision in the injured eye and there is no chance that vision will be recovered.