A retropharyngeal abscess is caused by a bacterial infection.
Symptoms include difficulty and pain when swallowing, a fever, stiff neck, and noisy breathing.
The diagnosis is based on symptoms and x-rays or computed tomography of the neck.
Children who receive prompt treatment do well.
The abscess is drained surgically, and antibiotics are given to eliminate the infection.
A retropharyngeal abscess forms when lymph nodes Overview of the Lymphatic System in the back of the throat become infected, break down, and form pus. Because these nodes begin to disappear by age 4 to 5 years, retropharyngeal abscesses occur mainly in children age 1 to 8 years and are uncommon in adults.
A retropharyngeal abscess is usually caused by a bacterial infection that has spread from the tonsils, throat, sinuses, adenoids, or nose. Many infections are caused by a combination of bacteria. HIV infection Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and is treated with antiretroviral medications. If untreated, it can cause... read more and tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis is a chronic contagious infection caused by the airborne bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually affects the lungs, but almost any organ can be involved. Tuberculosis... read more are becoming more common causes in adults and children. An injury to the back of the throat caused by a sharp object, such as a fish bone, occasionally causes a retropharyngeal abscess.
Ear, Nose, and Throat
Symptoms of Retropharyngeal Abscess
The main symptoms of a retropharyngeal abscess are difficulty and pain when swallowing, fever, and enlargement of the lymph nodes in the neck. The voice is muffled, and children may drool. Children may make a squeaking or gasping sound when breathing in (stridor Stridor Stridor is a gasping sound during inhalation resulting from a partial blockage of the throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea). Stridor is usually loud enough to be heard... read more ). The neck may be stiff, and children may hold their head at an angle.
The abscess can block the airway, making breathing difficult. Children may lean forward, tilt their head and neck back, and move their jaw forward to make breathing easier. Adults may have severe neck pain but do not always have stridor.
Complications of a retropharyngeal abscess include blockage of the airway, bleeding around the abscess, rupture of the abscess into the airway (which can block the airway), and pneumonia. The voice box (larynx) may go into spasm and further interfere with breathing. Blood clots may form in the jugular veins of the neck. Infection may spread down into the chest. Sometimes widespread inflammation and infection of the bloodstream occurs, causing organs to malfunction (a condition called septic shock Sepsis and Septic Shock Sepsis is a serious bodywide response to bacteremia or another infection plus malfunction or failure of an essential system in the body. Septic shock is life-threatening low blood pressure ... read more ).
Diagnosis of Retropharyngeal Abscess
X-rays or computed tomography
A doctor suspects a retropharyngeal abscess in children who have a severe, unexplained sore throat and a stiff neck, particularly those with stridor Stridor Stridor is a gasping sound during inhalation resulting from a partial blockage of the throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea). Stridor is usually loud enough to be heard... read more .
X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans of the neck can confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of Retropharyngeal Abscess
A breathing tube followed by surgery to drain the abscess
Most people with a retropharyngeal abscess do well when treatment is prompt.
First, people are given antibiotics such as ceftriaxone or clindamycin by vein.
For both children and adults, doctors insert a plastic breathing tube through the mouth into the windpipe (trachea) to keep the airway open. Doctors then cut the abscess open allowing the pus to drain out.