Anticoagulants, oral factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban)
Coagulation factor Xa [recombinant], inactivated
Antifreeze (ethylene glycol type)
Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam)
IV lipid emulsion
Calcium channel blockers
IV insulin in high doses with IV glucose
IV lipid emulsion
Cyanide antidote kit (Nithiodote®, includes amyl nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate)
Digitalis, including drugs (digoxin) and plants (oleander, foxglove)
Heavy metals (such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc)
Drugs that remove heavy metals from the body (chelating drugs), such as dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, and succimer
Insecticides† (many brands, which may contain carbamates and organophosphates)—ingredients should be checked)
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Methanol (wood alcohol)
Methemoglobin‡-forming agents (such as aniline dyes, some local anesthetics, nitrates, nitrites, phenacetin, sulfonamides)
Centruroides immune fractionated antibodies
Rattlesnake (Crotalinae) antivenom
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC)
* Use is controversial.
† The antidotes cited are for carbamate and organophosphate insecticides only.
‡ Methemoglobin is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that is produced by certain poisons. Unlike normal hemoglobin, methemoglobin does not carry oxygen so the body's tissues do not get enough oxygen.
§ Antivenom is specific to the species of snake. There are many antivenoms, but rattlesnakes and copperheads cause most poisonous snakebites in the United States.
¶ There is limited evidence that L-carnitine is a good general antidote for acute valproic acid overdose. However, L-carnitine is likely to be safe, so it is a reasonable treatment in people who have a decreased level of consciousness.