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Bladder

By

Glenn M. Preminger

, MD, Duke University Medical Center

Last full review/revision Jun 2019| Content last modified Jun 2019
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The bladder is an expandable, muscular sac. Urine accumulates in the bladder as it arrives from the ureters.

The bladder gradually increases in size to accommodate an increasing volume of urine. When the bladder is full, nerve signals are sent to the brain to convey the need to urinate. When a person urinates, the urinary sphincter, located at the bladder's outlet (where the bladder and urethra meet), opens to allow urine to flow out. Simultaneously, the bladder wall contracts automatically, creating pressure that forces the urine down the urethra. Voluntarily tightening the muscles of the abdominal wall assists by adding extra pressure. The ends of the ureters in the bladder wall remain tightly shut during contraction of the bladder to prevent urine from flowing back into the ureters toward the kidneys.

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Nephrotic Syndrome
Glomeruli are clusters of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys containing pores that filter blood. In patients with nephrotic syndrome the glomeruli do not function properly and cause excessive protein excretion into the urine. Excessive protein excretion in turn may lead to fluid accumulation, low levels of the protein albumin in the blood, and high levels of blood fats. There are several causes of nephrotic syndrome, including which of the following?
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