Burning mouth syndrome probably represents a number of different conditions with different causes but a common symptom.
A burning, tingling, or numb sensation may affect the entire mouth or just the tongue and may be continuous or intermittent.
Doctors diagnose burning mouth syndrome on the basis of the person's symptoms and the absence of other more common causes of tongue discomfort.
Any underlying causes are treated.
Keeping the mouth moist often helps relieve the burning sensation.
Burning mouth syndrome occurs most commonly in women after menopause Menopause Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods and thus of fertility. For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular... read more .
Burning mouth syndrome is not the same as the temporary discomfort that many people experience after eating irritating or acidic foods.
Causes of Burning Mouth Syndrome
A number of disorders cause mouth pain. However, if people have mouth pain but do not have one of those disorders or any visible abnormalities of their mouth, doctors call it burning mouth syndrome. Doctors think burning mouth syndrome probably involves a poorly understood abnormality in the nerves that control pain and taste.
Other disorders that can cause mouth pain include
Vitamin B12 deficiency Overview of Vitamins Vitamins are a vital part of a healthy diet. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA)—the amount most healthy people need each day to remain healthy—has been determined for most vitamins. A safe... read more or folate deficiency Folate Deficiency Folate deficiency is common. Because the body stores only a small amount of folate, a diet lacking in folate leads to a deficiency within a few months. Not eating enough raw leafy vegetables... read more
Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors High blood pressure is very common. It often does not cause symptoms; however, high blood pressure can increase the risk of stroke, heart attacks, and heart failure. Therefore, it is important... read more (drugs used to treat high blood pressure)
Certain often habitual (called parafunctional) mouth behavior (for example, tongue thrusting, clenching, or teeth grinding [ bruxism Teeth Grinding Teeth grinding is clenching or grinding the teeth. Teeth grinding can occur during sleep (called sleep bruxism) and while awake (awake bruxism).Teeth grinding eventually wears down and damages... read more ])
Other tongue and mouth conditions, such as inflammation, autoimmune disorders, or cancer
Symptoms of Burning Mouth Syndrome
A painful burning, tingling, or numbing sensation may affect the entire mouth (particularly the tongue, lips, and roof of the mouth) or just the tongue. The sensation may be continuous or intermittent, may gradually increase throughout the day, and may be relieved by eating or drinking. Other symptoms include
A dry mouth (associated with increased thirst)
Possible consequences of the pain include changes in eating habits, irritability, depression, and avoidance of other people.
Diagnosis of Burning Mouth Syndrome
A doctor's evaluation
Tests to determine possible causes
A doctor or dentist reviews the person's medical history and dietary habits and examines the mouth. To make the diagnosis, usually pain must occur on most days, for about 2 hours a day or more, and for longer than 3 months. Doctors may do blood tests or other tests to check for certain other disorders known to cause burning mouth. For example, they may do a test to check the flow of saliva, to see if the person has dry mouth Dry Mouth Dry mouth is caused by a reduced or absent flow of saliva. This condition can cause discomfort, interfere with speech and swallowing, make wearing dentures difficult, cause bad breath (halitosis)... read more . Burning mouth syndrome is often difficult to diagnose because the tissue in the mouth also may appear normal in mild or early cases of mouth pain due to specific disorders.
Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome
Measures to keep the mouth moist and relieve pain
Sometimes antidepressants or antianxiety drugs
If doctors find a cause of the mouth pain, they treat that.
Several measures help to reduce symptoms. Saliva substitutes, ice chips, frequent drinks of water, or use of chewing gum (sugarless) may help stimulate saliva and keep the mouth moist. Antidepressants, such as nortriptyline, or antianxiety drugs, such as clonazepam, are sometimes helpful for the emotional changes that can also develop, but these drugs may make the pain symptoms worse by causing dry mouth Dry Mouth Dry mouth is caused by a reduced or absent flow of saliva. This condition can cause discomfort, interfere with speech and swallowing, make wearing dentures difficult, cause bad breath (halitosis)... read more . Capsaicin cream, gabapentin, and vitamin supplements (B and C) also may be helpful. Cognitive-behavioral therapy Psychotherapy Extraordinary advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness. As a result, many mental health disorders can now be treated nearly as successfully as physical disorders. Most treatment... read more may sometimes help when other treatments do not. Sometimes symptoms disappear without treatment but may return.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Burning Mouth Syndrome: Comprehensive information on burning mouth disorder, including data and statistics, access to consumer-friendly publications, and guidance on finding dental care