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Stingray Stings

By

Robert A. Barish

, MD, MBA, University of Illinois at Chicago;


Thomas Arnold

, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport

Last full review/revision May 2020| Content last modified May 2020
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Topic Resources

Stingrays contain venom in spines located on the back of their tail. Injuries usually occur when a person steps on a stingray (which is often buried in sand) while wading in shallow ocean surf. The stingray thrusts its tail spine into the person’s foot or leg, releasing venom. Fragments of the spine’s covering may remain in the wound, increasing the risk of infection.

The wound from a stingray’s spine is usually jagged and bleeds freely. Pain is immediate and severe, gradually diminishing over 6 to 48 hours. Many people with these wounds experience fainting spells, weakness, nausea, and anxiety. Vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, generalized cramps, breathing difficulties, and death are less common.

Treatment of Stingray Stings

  • Initially rinse with saltwater

  • A doctor's treatment of the wound and removal of spine fragments

First aid treatment for stingray injuries to an arm or leg begins by gently rinsing with saltwater in an attempt to remove fragments of the tail spine. The spine should be removed only if it is at the skin surface and is not penetrating the neck, chest, or abdomen. Significant bleeding should be slowed by applying direct pressure.

In the emergency department, doctors examine the wound and remove fragments of the spine. A tetanus shot Vaccination Tetanus results from a toxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin makes muscles contract involuntarily and become rigid. Tetanus usually develops after a wound or... read more may be needed. The injured arm or leg should be elevated for several days. Some injured people are given antibiotics and may need surgery to close the wound.

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Fractures of the Jaw and Midface
Fractures to one or more facial structures can result from a single injury. Jaw fractures may occur to the mandible, or lower jaw, or to the maxilla, bone of the upper jaw. Other structures susceptible to fracture include the eye sockets, nose, and cheek bones. Which of the following facial structures is most likely to fracture if a person falls from a great height or hits the windshield of a car face-first during a motor vehicle accident?
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