Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. Only some bacteria cause disease in people. Other bacteria live inside the intestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or on the skin without causing harm. Some bacteria are even thought to help keep people healthy.
The most common bacterial infections among children are skin infections (including impetigo), ear infections, and throat infections (strep throat). These and many other less common bacterial disorders are treated similarly in adults and children and are discussed elsewhere. Other infections occur at all ages but have specific considerations in children. Several severe bacterial infections are preventable by routine immunization early in childhood.
Certain children are at particular risk of bacterial infections.
High-risk children include
Infants younger than 3 months
Children who have no spleen
Children who have an immune system disorder
Children who have sickle cell disease
Children who have cancer
Children who have not had recommended vaccinations
Sometimes doctors diagnose bacterial infections by the typical symptoms they cause. Usually, however, bacteria must be identified in samples of tissue, blood, or body fluids, such as urine, pus, or cerebrospinal fluid. Sometimes bacteria from these samples can be recognized under a microscope or identified with rapid detection tests such as tests that look for genetic material from certain bacteria. Usually, however, they are too few or too small to see, so doctors must try to grow (culture) them in the laboratory. It typically takes 24 to 48 hours to culture the bacteria.
Cultures can also be used to test the susceptibility of particular bacteria to various antibiotics. The results can help a doctor determine which drug to use in treating an infected child.
Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. There are many different antibiotics. Each one is effective only on certain bacteria, although some are effective against a wider range of bacteria than others. Most often, antibiotics alone can eliminate a bacterial infection. However, when an infection has created a large collection of pus, people sometimes also need surgery to drain the pus. Such infections include abscesses and joint infections.
Doctors may treat certain potentially serious childhood infections with antibiotics before they have the culture results. When results are obtained, the antibiotics are continued or changed as needed. If no bacteria are found, antibiotics may be stopped.