A vaginal yeast infection may cause intense itching of the vagina and vulva, and women often have a thick, white, curd-like discharge.
If symptoms suggest a vaginal infection, doctors examine a sample of the discharge and may test it or fluid from the cervix for infectious organisms that can cause infection.
Antifungal medications—creams, vaginal suppositories, or oral medications—are effective treatment.
Being pregnant or having diabetes or a weakened immune system increases the risk of vaginal yeast infections.
(See also Overview of Vaginal Infections Overview of Vaginitis (Vaginal Infection or Inflammation) Vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons women see their doctor, accounting for millions of visits each year. Vaginal infections are caused by infectious organisms (such as bacteria... read more .)
Causes of Vaginal Yeast Infection
In women of childbearing age, yeast infections due to Candida albicans are particularly common. This yeast normally resides on the skin or in the intestine. From these areas, it can spread to the vagina. Yeast infections are not transmitted sexually.
Vaginal yeast infections are more likely to occur in women who
Have a weakened immune system Overview of Immunodeficiency Disorders Immunodeficiency disorders involve malfunction of the immune system, resulting in infections that develop and recur more frequently, are more severe, and last longer than usual. Immunodeficiency... read more —suppressed by medications (such as corticosteroids or chemotherapy drugs) or impaired by a disorder (such as AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and is treated with antiretroviral medications. If untreated, it can cause... read more )
Are taking antibiotics
Antibiotics taken by mouth tend to kill the bacteria that normally reside in the vagina and that prevent yeast from growing. Thus, using antibiotics increases the risk of developing a yeast infection.
Yeast infections are more likely to occur just before menstrual periods.
After menopause, yeast infections are uncommon except in women who take menopausal hormone therapy Hormone Therapy for Menopause Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods and thus of fertility. For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular... read more .
Symptoms of Vaginal Yeast Infection
The vagina and vulva may itch or burn, which may be particularly severe during sexual intercourse. The genital area may become red and swollen. Women may have a white discharge, often thick and curd-like.
Vaginal yeast infection symptoms may worsen the week before a menstrual period begins.
Did You Know...
Diagnosis of Vaginal Yeast Infection
A doctor's evaluation
Examination of a sample of the discharge and/or fluid from the cervix
If women have a vaginal discharge that is unusual or that lasts for more than a few days or have other vaginal symptoms, they should see a doctor.
Doctors suspect a yeast infection based on symptoms, such as a thick, white, curd-like discharge. They then ask questions about the discharge, other symptoms, possible causes (such as diabetes, other disorders, and use of antibiotics or hormones), and hygiene.
To confirm the diagnosis, doctors do a pelvic examination Gynecologic Examination For gynecologic care, a woman should choose a health care practitioner with whom she can comfortably discuss sensitive topics, such as sex, birth control, pregnancy, and problems related to... read more . While examining the vagina, the doctor takes a sample of the discharge with a cotton-tipped swab. The sample is examined under a microscope and sometimes cultured (placed in a substance that allows infectious organisms to grow). With information from these examinations, the doctor can often identify the cause of the symptoms.
Treatment of Vaginal Yeast Infection
Yeast infections are treated with antifungal medications. They may be used in the following ways:
Applied as a cream to the affected area
Inserted into the vagina as a suppository
Taken by mouth
Vaginal treatments with butoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, and tioconazole are available without a prescription. Oils in these creams and ointments weaken latex-based condoms and diaphragms, so women should not use latex products for birth control during treatment.
Antifungal medications (such as fluconazole and itraconazole) taken by mouth require a prescription. A single dose of fluconazole is as effective as the creams and ointments. However, if infections recur often, women may need to take several doses.
New oral antifungal medications to treat vaginal yeast infections include ibrexafungerp and oteseconazole.
Prevention of Vaginal Yeast Infection
Women who are at high risk of a yeast infection may need to take an antifungal medication by mouth to help prevent yeast infections. Such women include those with the following:
A need to take antibiotics for a long time
Repeated yeast infections, particularly in women with a weakened immune system
Keeping the vulva dry and wearing loose, absorbent cotton clothing that allows air to circulate can reduce moisture, which encourages the growth of yeast, and thus help prevent yeast from growing.