Refractive disorders result in blurring of vision.
Children may be unable to make their vision problems known.
The diagnosis is based on the results of screening and vision testing.
These disorders can be treated with eyeglasses or contact lenses.
(See also Refractive Disorders Overview of Refractive Disorders In refractive disorders, light rays entering the eye are not focused on the retina, causing blurred vision. The shape of the eye or cornea or age-related stiffness of the lens may decrease the... read more in adults.)
Refractive disorders, such as nearsightedness (inability to see distant objects clearly), farsightedness (inability to see close objects clearly), and astigmatism (an irregular curvature of the focusing surfaces of the eye), result in blurring of vision. Blurring occurs because the eye cannot focus images precisely on the retina. If uncorrected, a permanent decrease in vision ( amblyopia Amblyopia Amblyopia, a common cause of vision loss in children, is a decrease in vision that occurs because the brain ignores the image received from an eye. Vision loss may be permanent if the disorder... read more ) may develop.
Children are often not able to make their vision problems known or do not have symptoms. Some children may squint and frown when reading and excessively blink or rub their eyes. Squinting and frowning may lead to headaches.
Sometimes a teacher or school nurse is the first to detect a vision problem.
Diagnosis of Refractive Disorders
All children should be screened for refractive errors and other eye problems. Children as young as 3 or 4 years old can view charts with pictures, figures, or letters used to test vision. Vision is tested in each eye separately to detect loss of vision that affects only one eye. The eye not being tested at the time is covered.
Eye doctors, either ophthalmologists (medical doctors who specialize in the evaluation and treatment of all types of eye disorders) or optometrists (health care practitioners who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of vision or refractive problems), diagnose refractive errors by doing an eye examination The Eye Examination A person who has eye symptoms should be checked by a doctor. However, some eye disorders cause few or no symptoms in their early stages, so the eyes should be checked regularly (every 1 to 2... read more and measuring the refractive error.
Treatment of Refractive Disorders
Eyeglasses or contact lenses
In young children, refractive errors are generally treated with eyeglasses Eyeglasses Refractive errors can be corrected with glass or plastic lenses mounted in a frame (eyeglasses) or with a small lens made of plastic floating or resting on the cornea (contact lens). Good vision... read more . In older, more responsible children, refractive errors can be corrected with contact lenses Contact Lenses Refractive errors can be corrected with glass or plastic lenses mounted in a frame (eyeglasses) or with a small lens made of plastic floating or resting on the cornea (contact lens). Good vision... read more . However, inadequate care and cleaning of contact lenses can lead to eye infections Care and complications of contact lenses Refractive errors can be corrected with glass or plastic lenses mounted in a frame (eyeglasses) or with a small lens made of plastic floating or resting on the cornea (contact lens). Good vision... read more .
Most pediatric ophthalmologists do not recommend doing laser treatments (such as LASIK Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) Surgical and laser procedures (refractive surgery) can be used to correct the refractive errors nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. These procedures are commonly used to reshape... read more ) for children with refractive errors.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Children's Eye Foundation of AAPOS: Practical information about prevention, detection, research, and education to protect the vision of children