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Tension-Type Headaches

(Tension Headache)


Stephen D. Silberstein

, MD, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University

Reviewed/Revised Apr 2023

A tension-type headache is usually mild to moderate pain that feels like a band tightening around the head.

  • Stress, sleep disturbances, neck or jaw pain, or eye strain may trigger these headaches.

  • Headaches may occur several or many days each month.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms and results of a physical examination and sometimes do imaging tests to rule out other disorders.

  • Pain relievers may help, as may relaxation and stress management.

Many people occasionally have tension-type headaches. Some people have these headaches frequently.

Causes of Tension-Type Headaches

The cause of tension-type headaches is not well-understood but may be related to a lower-than-normal threshold for pain. Stress may be involved. However, how stress is involved is not clearly understood, and it is not the only explanation for the symptoms.

Other problems may contribute to or trigger the headaches. Triggers include

Symptoms of Tension-Type Headaches

Tension-type headaches feel like tightening of a band around the head. They start at the front of the head or the area around the eyes, then spread over the whole head.

These headaches may be episodic or chronic.

Episodic headaches occur fewer than 15 days a month. The pain is usually mild to moderate. It may last 30 minutes to several days. These headaches typically start several hours after waking and worsen as the day progresses. They rarely awaken people from sleep.

Chronic headaches occur 15 or more days a month. Severity may increase as more headaches occur. The pain may vary in intensity throughout the day but is almost always present.

Tension-type headaches are rarely severe and usually do not interfere with daily activities.

Some mild migraines resemble tension-type headaches.

Diagnosis of Tension-Type Headaches

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • Rarely computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to rule out other possible causes

The diagnosis of tension-type headaches is based on the person’s description of the headache and the results of a physical examination. Doctors ask the person about problems that may trigger the headaches.

No specific procedures can confirm the diagnosis. Sometimes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head is done to rule out other disorders that may be causing the headache, particularly if headaches have developed recently.

Treatment of Tension-Type Headaches

  • Pain relievers

  • Behavioral and psychologic interventions

  • For chronic headaches, certain medications used to treat migraines

For some people, caffeine, an ingredient of some headache preparations, enhances the effect of analgesics. However, overuse of analgesics or caffeine (in headache preparations or caffeinated beverages) can lead to daily headaches. Such headaches, called medication overuse headaches Medication Overuse Headache A medication overuse (rebound) headache occurs when people who take too many headache medications have a headache for more than 15 days a month for more than 3 months. Medication overuse headache... read more , can be present when a person awakens in the morning. Headaches can also worsen or occur when the medications being used to treat the headache are suddenly stopped. Thus, people need to work closely with their doctor to change the medications and to use behavioral and psychologic interventions when possible.

Behavioral and psychologic interventions are often effective, especially when medications are also used. These interventions include relaxation and stress management techniques.

If tension-type headaches are chronic, some medications used to prevent migraine Some Drugs Used to Treat Migraines Some Drugs Used to Treat Migraines , particularly amitriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant), can help.

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