MSD Manual

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Basic Y Structure of Antibodies
IMM_antibodies_structure
Basic Y Structure of Antibodies

An antibody molecule is basically shaped like a Y. The molecule has 2 parts:

Variable part: This part varies from antibody to antibody, depending on which antigen the antibody targets. The antigen attaches to the variable part.

Constant part: This part can be one of 5structures, which determines the antibody’s class— IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, or IgD. This part is the same within each class.

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Acquired Immunity