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Cancer (lymphoma, leukemia, or various solid tumors)
Preeclampsia (also called toxemia of pregnancy)
Protozoal infections (usually schistosomiasis or malaria)
Some glomerulonephritis (including rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)*
Vasculitic disorders (immunoglobulin A–associated vasculitis , granulomatosis with polyangiitis, or microscopic polyangiitis)
Viral infections (particularly hepatitis B,* hepatitis C,* or human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]*)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)*
Heroin taken intravenously
Poison ivy and poison oak
* Asterisks indicate the most common causes.