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Introduction to the Human Body

By

Alexandra Villa-Forte

, MD, MPH, Cleveland Clinic

Last full review/revision Oct 2019| Content last modified Oct 2019
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Topic Resources

The human body is a complex, highly organized structure made up of unique cells that work together to accomplish the specific functions necessary for sustaining life.

The biology of the human body includes

  • Physiology (how the body functions)

  • Anatomy (how the body is structured)

Anatomy is organized by levels, from the smallest components of cells to the largest organs and their relationships to other organs.

Gross anatomy is the study of the body's organs as seen with the naked eye during visual inspection and when the body is cut open for examination (dissection).

Cellular anatomy is the study of cells and their components, which can be observed only with the use of special techniques and special instruments such as microscopes.

Molecular anatomy (often called molecular biology) is the study of the smallest components of cells at the biochemical level.

Anatomy and physiology change remarkably between fertilization and birth. After birth, the rate of anatomic and physiologic changes slows, but childhood is still a time of remarkable growth and development (see Physical Growth of Infants and Children Physical Growth of Infants and Children Physical growth refers to an increase in body size (length or height and weight) and in the size of organs. From birth to about age 1 or 2 years, children grow rapidly. After this rapid infant... read more ). Some anatomic changes occur past adulthood, but the physiologic changes in the body's cells and organs are what contribute most to what we experience as aging (see Changes in the Body With Aging Changes in the Body With Aging The body changes with aging because changes occur in individual cells and in whole organs. These changes result in changes in function and in appearance. (See also Overview of Aging.) As cells... read more ).

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Controlling Health Care Costs
About one-third of health care costs accrue from care provided during the last year of life. One cost-control strategy is to encourage people to make their wishes known regarding end-of-life care. Which of the following is the term used for the instructions a person writes to make the person’s preferences for end-of-life care known?
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