MSD Manual

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JoAnn V. Pinkerton

, MD, University of Virginia Health System

Full review/revision Aug 2021 | Modified Sep 2022
Topic Resources

Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods and thus of fertility.

  • For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular, and symptoms (such as hot flashes) may occur.

  • After menopause, bone density decreases.

  • Menopause is diagnosed when a woman has not had a period for 1 year, but blood tests may be done to confirm it.

  • Certain measures, including hormone therapy and other drugs, can lessen symptoms.

During the reproductive years, menstrual periods Menstrual Cycle Menstruation is the shedding of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) accompanied by bleeding. It occurs in approximately monthly cycles throughout a woman's reproductive life, except during... read more usually occur in approximately monthly cycles, with an egg released from the ovary (ovulation) about 2 weeks after the first day of a period. For this cycle to occur regularly, the ovaries must produce enough of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Menopause occurs because as women age, the ovaries stop producing estrogen and progesterone. During the years before menopause, production of estrogen and progesterone begins to fluctuate, and menstrual periods and ovulation occur less often. Eventually, menstrual periods and ovulation end permanently, and pregnancy can no longer occur naturally. A woman’s last period can be identified only later, after she has had no periods for at least 1 year. (Women who do not wish to become pregnant should use birth control until 1 year has passed since their last menstrual period.)

Perimenopause refers to the several years before and the 1 year after the last menstrual period. How many years of perimenopause precede the last menstrual period varies greatly. During perimenopause, estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate widely. These fluctuations are thought to cause the menopausal symptoms experienced by many women in their 40s.

The menopausal transition is the part of perimenopause that leads up to the last menstrual period. It is characterized by changes in the pattern of menstrual periods. The menopausal transition lasts from 4 to 8 years. It lasts longer in women who smoke and in women who were younger when it began.

Postmenopause refers to the time after the last menstrual period.

In the United States, the average age for menopause is about 52. However, menopause may occur normally in women aged 45 (or even 40) to age 55 or older. Menopause may start at a younger age in women who

  • Smoke

  • Live at a high altitude

  • Are malnourished

Did You Know...

  • Symptoms of menopause can start years before menstrual periods end.

  • The average age for menopause is about 52, but anywhere between age 40 to 55 or older is considered normal.

Symptoms of Menopause

Perimenopause symptoms

During perimenopause, symptoms may be nonexistent, mild, moderate, or severe. Symptoms may last from 6 months to about 10 years, sometimes longer.

Irregular menstrual periods may be the first symptom of perimenopause. Typically, periods occur more often, then less often, but any pattern is possible. Periods may be shorter or longer, lighter or heavier. They may not occur for months, then become regular again. In some women, periods occur regularly until menopause.

Hot flashes affect 75 to 85% of women. They usually begin before periods stop. They last for an average of almost 7 1/2 years but can last more than 10 years. Usually, hot flashes become milder and occur less frequently as time passes.

What causes hot flashes is unknown. But it may involve a resetting of the brain's thermostat (the hypothalamus), which controls body temperature. As a result, very small increases in temperature can make women feel hot. Hot flashes may be related to fluctuations in hormone levels. There is no convincing evidence that alcoholic beverages trigger hot flashes.

During a hot flash, blood vessels near the skin surface widen (dilate). As a result, blood flow increases, causing the skin, especially on the head and neck, to become red and warm (flushed). Women feel warm or hot, and perspiration may be profuse. Hot flashes are sometimes called hot flushes because the face can become red.

A hot flash lasts from 30 seconds to 5 minutes and may be followed by chills. Night sweats are hot flashes that occur at night.

Other symptoms may occur around the time of menopause. The changes in hormone levels that occur at this time may contribute to the following:

  • Breast tenderness

  • Moodiness

  • Worsening of migraines that occur just before, during, or just after menstrual periods (menstrual migraines)

Depression, irritability, anxiety, nervousness, sleep disturbances (including insomnia), loss of concentration, headache, and fatigue may also occur. Many women experience these symptoms during perimenopause and assume that menopause is the cause. However, evidence supporting a connection between menopause and these symptoms is mixed. These symptoms are not directly related to the decreases in estrogen levels that occur with menopause. And many other factors (such as aging itself or a disorder) could explain the symptoms.

Night sweats may disturb sleep, contributing to fatigue, irritability, loss of concentration, and mood changes. In such cases, these symptoms may be indirectly (through night sweats) related to menopause. However, during menopause, sleep disturbances are common even among women who do not have hot flashes. Midlife stresses (such as struggles with adolescents, concerns about aging, caring for aging parents, and changes in marital relationship) may contribute to sleep disturbances. Thus, the relationship of fatigue, irritability, loss of concentration, and mood changes to menopause seems less clear.

Symptoms after menopause

Many of the symptoms that occur during perimenopause, although disturbing, become less frequent and less intense after menopause. However, the decrease in estrogen levels causes changes that can continue to negatively affect health (for example, increasing the risk of osteoporosis). These changes may worsen, unless measures to prevent them are taken. The following may be affected:

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause is a new, more accurate term used to refer to symptoms that affect the vagina and urinary tract and that are caused by menopause. These symptoms include vaginal dryness, pain during sexual intercourse, urinary urgency, and urinary tract infections.

Did You Know...

  • Genitourinary syndrome of menopause is a new term used to refer to symptoms that affect the vagina, vulva, and urinary tract and that are caused by menopause, such as vaginal dryness, pain during sexual intercourse, urinary urgency, and urinary tract infections.

Diagnosis of Menopause

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • Rarely blood tests to measure hormone levels

In about three fourths of women, menopause is obvious. Thus, laboratory tests are usually not needed.

If menopause begins several years before age 50 or if symptoms are not clear-cut, tests may be done to check for disorders that can disrupt menstrual periods. Rarely, if menopause or perimenopause needs to be confirmed, blood tests are done to measure levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (which stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone).

Before any treatment is started, doctors do the following:

During the pelvic examination Pelvic Examination For gynecologic care, a woman should choose a health care practitioner with whom she can comfortably discuss sensitive topics, such as sex, birth control, pregnancy, and problems related to... read more , doctors check for typical changes in the vagina, which support the diagnosis of menopause. Doctors also check for abnormalities in the reproductive organs.

A woman's medical history and family history help doctors determine her risk of developing certain disorders after menopause.

Mammography, if it has not been done recently, is done as part of routine care. Blood tests may be done.

Bone density is measured in the following women:

Treatment of Menopause

  • General measures

  • Certain drugs

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

  • Hormone therapy

Understanding what happens during perimenopause can help women cope with the symptoms. Talking with other women who have gone through menopause or with their doctor may also help.

Treatment of menopause focuses on relieving symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. General measures may help, but when other treatment is needed, the most effective is

Progestogen refers to both synthetic and naturally occurring forms of progesterone (a female hormone). Another term, progestin, refers only to synthetic forms.

Effective measures that do not involve hormones include

  • Hypnosis by a qualified health care practitioner to help relieve hot flashes

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy

  • Other drugs such as two types of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) or the antiseizure drug gabapentin

Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been adapted to be used during the menopause transition and postmenopause. It can help women manage hot flashes and night sweats.

General measures

The following may help relieve hot flashes:

  • Wearing layers of clothing, which can be taken off when a woman feels hot and which can be put on when she feels cold, can help her cope with hot flashes.

  • Wearing clothing that breathes (such as cotton underwear and sleepwear) or that can wick away moisture (such as certain kinds of underwear and exercise clothes) may enhance comfort.

  • Avoiding things that trigger symptoms (such as hot environments, spicy foods, and bright lights) may also help.

  • Using fans or lowering the thermostat may help.

  • Using a cooling gel mattress topper (a gel-filled layer that is placed over a mattress and pulls body heat away from the person)

  • Wearing a cooling device (such as a wristband, necklace, or neck wrap)

  • Exercising regularly and losing weight may help control hot flashes and have other health benefits.

Although mindfulness (the practice of being aware of the present moment), relaxation techniques, and/or yoga may be of general benefit to women, it is not clear whether they relieve hot flashes.

To manage sleep disturbances, women can follow a routine to calm themselves before they go to bed and when night sweats wake them up. Developing good sleep habits Sleep hygiene The most commonly reported sleep-related problems are insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness. Insomnia is difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, waking up early, or a disturbance in... read more and exercise can also help improve sleep.

Bladder control may be improved by Kegel exercises Exercises Pelvic organ prolapse involves relaxation or weakening of the ligaments, connective tissue, and muscles of the pelvis, causing the bladder, urethra, small intestine, rectum, or uterus to bulge... read more Exercises . For these exercises, a woman tightens the pelvic muscles as if stopping urine flow. Women may be taught how to use biofeedback to help them learn to control their pelvic muscles. Biofeedback Biofeedback Biofeedback, a type of mind-body medicine, is a method of bringing unconscious biologic processes under conscious control. In biofeedback, electronic devices are used to measure and report information... read more is a method of bringing unconscious biologic processes under conscious control. It involves using electronic devices to measure information about these processes and to report it back to the conscious mind. Other measures that may help include

  • Limiting fluid intake at certain times—for example, before going out or 3 to 4 hours before bedtime

  • Avoiding foods that irritate the bladder (such as caffeine-containing fluids and spicy or salty foods)

If vaginal dryness makes sexual intercourse painful, an over-the-counter vaginal lubricant may help. For some women, applying a vaginal moisturizer every 1 to 3 days helps. Staying sexually active or masturbating also helps by stimulating blood flow to the vagina and the surrounding tissues and by keeping tissues flexible.


Several types of drugs can help relieve some of the symptoms associated with menopause.

Paroxetine (an antidepressant) can help relieve hot flashes. Gabapentin, an antiseizure drug, and other antidepressants (such as desvenlafaxine, fluoxetine, sertraline, or venlafaxine) are somewhat effective at relieving hot flashes. Antidepressants Drug therapy for depression may also help relieve depression, anxiety, and irritability. However, none of these drugs are as effective at relieving symptoms of menopause as hormone therapy.


Complementary and alternative medicine

Some women take medicinal herbs and other supplements to relieve hot flashes, irritability, mood changes, and memory loss. However, black cohosh, other medicinal herbs (such as dong quai, evening primrose, ginseng, and St. John’s wort), and over-the-counter drugs do not appear to be more effective than placebo Placebos Placebos are substances that are made to resemble drugs but do not contain an active drug. (See also Overview of Drugs.) A placebo is made to look exactly like a real drug but is made of an... read more , which works about 50% of the time. Also, such remedies are not regulated as drugs are. That is, their manufacturers are not required to show that they are safe or effective, and what their ingredients are and how much of each ingredient a product contains are not standardized (see Overview of Dietary Supplements/Safety and Effectiveness Safety and Effectiveness Dietary supplements are used by about 75% of Americans. They are the most common therapies included among integrative medicine and health (IMH) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)... read more ).

Studies of soy protein have had mixed results. One soy product, called S-equol, may help relieve hot flashes in some women.

Some supplements (for example, kava) can be harmful. Furthermore, some supplements can interact with other drugs and can worsen some disorders.

Concerns about using standard hormone therapy have led to an interest in using hormones derived from plants such as yams and soy. These hormones have nearly the same molecular structure as hormones made by the body and thus are called bioidentical hormones. Many of the hormones used in standard hormone therapy are also so-called bioidentical hormones derived from plants. However, the hormones used in standard hormone therapy have been tested and approved, and their use is closely monitored.

Sometimes a pharmacist custom-makes (compounds) bioidentical hormones for a person according to a health care practitioner's prescription. These are called compounded bioidentical hormones. Their production is not well-regulated. Thus, many doses, combinations, and forms are possible, and purity, consistency, and potency of the products varies. Compounded bioidentical hormones are often marketed as substitutes for standard hormone therapy and sometimes as a better, safer treatment than standard hormone therapy. But there is no evidence that compounded products are safer, more effective, or even as effective as standard hormone therapy. Sometimes women are not told that compounded bioidentical hormone products have the same risks as standard hormones.

Women who are considering taking these compounded hormone therapies are advised to discuss them with a doctor.

Hormone Therapy for Menopause

Hormone therapy can relieve moderate to severe symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. However, hormone therapy may increase the risk of developing certain serious disorders.

Hormone therapy improves quality of life for many women by relieving their symptoms, but it does not improve quality of life if women do not have symptoms. Thus, hormone therapy is not routinely given to postmenopausal women. Whether to take hormone therapy is a decision that must be made by a woman and her doctor based on the woman’s individual situation. Women should ask their doctor about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy before they start taking the drugs.

For many women, risks outweigh potential benefits, so this therapy is not recommended. However, for some women, depending on their medical conditions and risk factors, potential benefits may outweigh risks.

For example, hormone therapy may be recommended for women who have a high risk of bone loss or fracture plus one of the following:

  • They are under age 60.

  • Menopause was diagnosed fewer than 10 years previously.

  • They cannot take other drugs (such as bisphosphonates) to prevent bone loss and fractures.

Hormone therapy reduces bone loss and risk of fracture in these women.

Usually, doctors do not recommend that women start taking hormone therapy if

  • Women are older than 60.

  • Menopause was diagnosed more than 10 to 20 years previously.

When hormone therapy is used, doctors prescribe the lowest hormone dose that controls symptoms and for the shortest time needed.

Hormone therapy can include

  • Estrogen

  • A progestogen (such as progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate)

  • Both

All hormones used in hormone therapy are made in laboratories. They may or may not be identical to those made in the body, but the way they act in the body is very similar. Progestogens resemble progesterone, a female hormone made by the body.

Women who have a uterus are usually given estrogen plus a progestogen (combination hormone therapy) because taking estrogen alone increases the risk of cancer of the uterine lining Cancer of the Uterus The most common type of cancer of the uterus develops in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and is called endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer usually affects women after menopause. It... read more Cancer of the Uterus (endometrial cancer). The progestogen helps protect against this cancer. Women who no longer have a uterus may take estrogen alone.

The benefits and risks of hormone therapy depend on whether the hormones are taken alone or together.

Estrogens with or without a progestogen: Potential benefits and risks

Estrogen has several benefits:

  • Hot flashes and other symptoms: Estrogen is the most effective treatment for hot flashes.

  • Drying and thinning of vaginal and urinary tract tissues: Estrogen can prevent these tissues from drying and thinning. Thus, it can reduce pain with sexual intercourse. When the only problem a woman has is drying and thinning of these tissues, doctors may recommend a form of estrogen that is inserted into the vagina. These forms include low-dose estrogen tablets, a low-dose estrogen ring, a low-dose estrogen cream, and suppositories. When a low dose of estrogen is used, women who still have a uterus do not have to take a progestogen. With high doses of estrogen, women with a uterus need to take a progestogen.

  • An urgent need to urinate and recurring urinary tract infections: Forms of estrogen that are inserted into the vagina (creams, tablets, or rings) help relieve these problems.

  • Osteoporosis Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a condition in which a decrease in the density of bones weakens the bones, making breaks (fractures) likely. Aging, estrogen deficiency, low vitamin D or calcium intake, and... read more Osteoporosis : Estrogen, with or without a progestogen, helps prevent or slow the progression of osteoporosis. However, taking hormone therapy for the sole purpose of preventing osteoporosis is usually not recommended. Most women can take a bisphosphonate or another drug Drugs Drugs to help prevent osteoporosis instead (although these drugs have their own risks). Bisphosphonates increase bone mass by reducing the amount of bone the body breaks down as it re-forms bones. The body continuously breaks bone down and re-forms it to help bones adjust to the changing demands placed on them. As people age, more bone is broken down than is re-formed.

Estrogen taken without a progestogen increases the risk of endometrial cancer in women who have a uterus. The risk increases with higher doses and longer use of estrogen. Taking a progestogen with estrogen almost eliminates the risk of endometrial cancer, reducing the risk below that for women who do not take hormone therapy. Nonetheless, doctors evaluate any vaginal bleeding in women taking hormonal therapy to rule out endometrial cancer.

Estrogen, taken with or without a progestogen, increases the risk of the following:

For certain disorders, determining whether the risk is increased by estrogen alone or by estrogen plus a progestogen (combination therapy) is difficult.

Although taking hormone therapy increases the risk of all the above disorders, the risk is still low in healthy women who take hormone therapy for a short time during or shortly after perimenopause. Risk of most of these disorders increases with age, particularly 10 years or more past menopause, whether hormone therapy is taken or not. In older women, taking estrogen plus a progestogen also increases the risk of coronary artery disease.

Risks of hormone therapy are thought to be lower when low doses of estrogen are used. Forms of estrogen that are inserted into the vagina (such as estrogen creams or tablets or rings that contain estrogen) often have lower doses than tablets taken by mouth.

Estrogen given through a patch on the skin (transdermal form) appears to have a lower risk of blood clots, stroke, and gallbladder disorders (such as gallstones) than with forms taken by mouth.

Generally, women who have breast cancer, coronary artery disease, or blood clots in the legs, who have had a stroke, or who have risk factors for these disorders should not take estrogen therapy.

Combination hormone therapy reduces the risk of the following:

  • Osteoporosis

  • Colorectal cancer

Progestogens: Benefits and risks

Progestogens have some benefits:

  • Endometrial cancer: Taking a progestogen with estrogen almost eliminates the risk of endometrial cancer in women who have a uterus.

  • Hot flashes: High-dose progestogens can relieve hot flashes. But they are not as effective as estrogen.

Progestogens may increase the risk of the following:

  • An increase in LDL (the bad) cholesterol levels: Progestogens may have this effect. However, micronized progesterone (a natural rather than synthetic progesterone) appears to have a less negative effect on LDL levels than synthetic progestins.

  • Blood clots in the legs and lungs.

The effect of a progestogen alone on the risk of other disorders is not clear.

Side effects

Side effects of estrogen and progestogens, especially at high doses, may include nausea, breast tenderness, headache, fluid retention, and mood changes.

Forms of hormonal therapy

Estrogen and/or a progestogen can be taken in several ways:

  • Estrogen or a progestogen tablets taken by mouth (oral form)

  • Estrogen creams, tablets, rings, or suppositories inserted into the vagina (vaginal form)

  • Estrogen lotions, sprays, or gels applied externally to the skin (topical form)

  • Estrogen or combination estrogen-progestogen skin patches (transdermal form)

As tablets taken by mouth, estrogen and a progestogen may be taken as two tablets or as a combination tablet. Commonly, estrogen and a progestogen are taken every day. This schedule may result in irregular vaginal bleeding during the first year or more of therapy. (However, if bleeding continues for more than a year, women should see their doctor.) Alternatively, estrogen may be taken daily, with a progestogen taken for 12 to 14 days each month. With this schedule, most women have monthly vaginal bleeding on the days after they take progestogen.

Vaginal forms of estrogen are inserted into the vagina. These forms include

There are many different products, which come in different doses and which contain different types of estrogen. Creams and rings may contain a high or low dose of estrogen. If a high dose of estrogen is used in vaginal forms, women are also given a progestogen to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Usually, a low dose is sufficient for vaginal symptoms.

Using a vaginal form of estrogen may be more effective than taking estrogen by mouth for symptoms that affect the vagina (such as drying or thinning). Such treatment helps prevent intercourse from being painful, lessens urinary urgency, and reduces the risk of bladder infections.

As a lotion, spray, or gel, estrogen can be applied to the skin.

As a patch,estrogen or estrogen plus a progestogen can also be applied to the skin.

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)

SERMs (such as raloxifene and tamoxifen) function like estrogen in some ways but reverse the effects of estrogen in other ways. Raloxifene is used to treat osteoporosis and prevent breast cancer. Tamoxifen is used to treat breast cancer. Ospemifene can be used to relieve vaginal dryness.

When women take a SERM, hot flashes may temporarily worsen.

Bazedoxifene is a SERM that is given with estrogen in a combination tablet. It can relieve hot flashes and symptoms of vaginal atrophy, reduce breast tenderness, improve sleep, and prevent bone loss. Like estrogen, this drug increases the risk of blood clots in the legs and lungs, but it may reduce the risk of endometrial cancer and affect the breast less.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid that is produced in the adrenal glands and that is converted into sex hormones (estrogens and androgens). It is available as a suppository to be placed in the vagina. DHEA appears to relieve vaginal dryness and other symptoms of vaginal atrophy. It is also used to reduce pain during sexual intercourse due to vaginal atrophy.

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