Most cancers that affect the fallopian tubes have spread from other parts of the body.
At first, women may have vague symptoms, such as abdominal discomfort or bloating, or no symptoms.
Computed tomography is done to check for abnormalities, and surgery is done to confirm the diagnosis.
Usually, the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, adjacent lymph nodes, and surrounding tissues are removed, followed by chemotherapy.
(See also Overview of Female Reproductive System Cancers Overview of Female Reproductive System Cancers Cancers can occur in any part of the female reproductive system—the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries. These cancers are called gynecologic cancers. The most common... read more .)
In the United States, fewer than 1% of gynecologic cancers are fallopian tube cancers. Cancer that starts in the fallopian tubes is rare. Most cancers that affect the fallopian tubes originate elsewhere in the body.
Locating the Internal Female Reproductive Organs
Women are usually postmenopausal when fallopian tube cancer is diagnosed.
Risk factors for fallopian tube cancer include the following:
Long-term (chronic) inflammation of the fallopian tubes (chronic salpingitis)
More than 95% of fallopian tube cancers are adenocarcinomas, which develop from gland cells. A few are sarcomas, which develop from connective tissue.
Fallopian tube cancer spreads in much the same way as ovarian cancer:
Usually directly to the surrounding area
Through the shedding of cancer cells into the abdominal cavity
Through the lymphatic system to other parts of the pelvis and abdomen and eventually to distant parts of the body
Symptoms of Fallopian Tube Cancer
Symptoms of fallopian cancer include vague abdominal discomfort, bloating, and pain in the pelvic area or abdomen. Some women have a watery discharge from the vagina. When cancer is advanced, the abdominal cavity may fill with fluid (a condition called ascites), and women may feel a large lump (mass) in the pelvis.
Diagnosis of Fallopian Tube Cancer
Surgery to confirm the diagnosis
Fallopian tube cancer is seldom diagnosed early. Occasionally, it is diagnosed early when a mass or other abnormality is detected during a routine pelvic examination or an imaging test done for another reason. Usually, the cancer is not diagnosed until it is advanced, when it is obvious because a large mass or severe ascites is present.
If fallopian tube cancer is suspected, computed tomography (CT) is usually done. If the results suggest cancer, surgery is done to confirm the diagnosis, determine the extent of the spread (staging), and remove as much of the cancer as possible.
Doctors consider recommending genetic testing for any woman who is diagnosed with fallopian tube (or ovarian) cancer. Doctors also ask about any cancers family members have had. This information helps doctors identify women who are more likely to have a hereditary form of cancer, such as that caused by mutations in BRCA genes.
Doctors stage the cancer based on how far it has spread:
Stage I: The cancer occurs only in one or both fallopian tubes.
Stage II: The cancer has spread to nearby tissues but is still within the pelvis (which contains the internal reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum).
Stage III: The cancer has spread outside the pelvis to lymph nodes and/or to abdominal organs (such as the surface of the liver).
Stage IV: The cancer has spread to distant organs.
Staging of fallopian tube cancer requires surgery to biopsy the abnormal areas and to remove and check nearby lymph nodes.
Prognosis of Fallopian Tube Cancer
The prognosis for women who have fallopian tube cancer is similar to that for women who have ovarian cancer. Prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer and the woman's age.
The percentages of women who are alive 5 years after diagnosis and treatment (the 5-year survival rate) are
Stage I: About 90 to 95%
Stage II: About 70 to 80%
Stage III: About 50 to 60%
Stage IV: About 20%
Treatment of Fallopian Tube Cancer
Usually, removal of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, adjacent lymph nodes, and surrounding tissues
Sometimes removal of all tissue that appears affected (cytoreductive surgery)
Treatment of fallopian tube cancer almost always consists of removal of the uterus ( hysterectomy Hysterectomy Cancer of the uterus develops in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and is thus also called endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer usually affects women after menopause. It sometimes causes... read more ) and removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy), adjacent lymph nodes, and surrounding tissues. These procedures are usually done when surgery to stage the cancer is done. Sometimes surgery to stage and treat fallopian cancer can be done using a laparoscope Laparoscopy Laparoscopy is an examination of the abdominal cavity using a fiberoptic instrument inserted through the abdominal wall. This is a surgical procedure done in an operating room. People are given... read more .
For more advanced cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, doctors usually remove as much of the cancer as possible to prolong survival. This type of surgery is called cytoreductive surgery. Depending on where the cancer has spread, women may be treated with chemotherapy instead of or before and/or after surgery.
Chemotherapy (as for ovarian cancer Treatment Ovarian cancer, which typically starts on the surface of the ovaries, is not usually diagnosed until it is advanced. Ovarian cancer may not cause symptoms until it is large or has spread. If... read more ) is usually necessary after surgery. Chemotherapy may be used to destroy any small areas of cancer that may remain. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs are carboplatin plus paclitaxel. Radiation therapy is rarely useful.
For cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, removing as much of the cancer as possible improves the prognosis.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
National Cancer Institute: Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer: This web site provides links to general information about ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer, as well as links to information about causes, prevention, screening, treatment, and research and about coping with cancer.