History of Present Illness

A 10-year-old boy is brought to the emergency department because of constant right-sided scrotal pain. The pain began several hours prior to presentation and awoke him from sleep. He is an otherwise healthy boy who states he has never experienced pain like this before. He denies a history of genital trauma or any sexual activity, and he has not noticed any swelling or lumps in his groin. He has not had any fevers, chills, urinary frequency, dysuria, hematuria, or urethral discharge.